Angle Lens Ebook

Photography Masterclass

This online training course can teach you how to take amazing, eye-catching photos that people will not believe are from you and not a professional photographer! If you own a DSLR camera still are not satisfied with the quality of photos that you are getting from your camera, that is not your fault! You are not to blame for this! Once you learn the proper technique for taking photos, you will be Shocked at the difference that you will see in your photos. You will go from low-quality, lackluster photos to beautiful, high-quality stunners! Don't be discouraged; go through this training program and start learning how to take really amazing quality photos with your DSLR camera! You will learn how to use the best equipment, how to master angles, and how to get the best out of the camera that you have to take the best photos ever! Read more here...

Photography Masterclass Summary


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My Photography Masterclass Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the fuss was about.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Looking at Camera

When you first load Camera Raw by opening a raw image, the first thing you'll notice is a large image preview (unobstructed by toolbars and palettes). Controls for adjusting images surround the image preview on the top, bottom, and right, as shown in Figure 8-1. Camera Raw menu Histogram Settings selection Camera Raw menu Histogram Settings selection Figure 8-1 The Camera Raw tools and controls Figure 8-1 The Camera Raw tools and controls On top of the image preview is the Camera Raw Tool palette and Option bar. The Tool palette contains controls for zooming, moving, white balance, color sampling, cropping, straightening, and rotating. To the bottom of the image, you'll find workflow settings that let you set the color space to work in, image size, and bit depth. At the right of the image are the histogram, settings, Camera Raw menus, and Camera Raw control tabs.

Becoming familiar with Camera

The Camera Raw window is laid out simply. Commands aren't buried in a series of menus, and the Adjustment tabs are visible (refer to Figure 1-10) when you first open an image in Camera Raw. Commonly used tools are easily available to you on the Camera Raw Option bar, and the Image window is simple to operate (with zoom controls laid out at the bottom of the image). The Camera Raw window is made up of these sections i Option bar The Option bar provides tools to help you move around, select a white point of the image (to correct white balance), crop, straighten, and rotate an image. The Option bar also includes check boxes you can use to toggle the image preview on and off an easy way to switch between the original (unadjusted) image and the image as it appears while you're making adjustments. i Workflow options The area at the bottom of the Camera Raw window where you can modify the color space, size, and resolution of an image. (Chapter 8 provides more detail on workflow options.) i...

Working in the Camera Raw Plug-In

The cornerstone of Photoshop's Raw capability is the Camera Raw plug-in. Although you can open an image from Adobe Bridge, the file management program installed with Photoshop (see Chapter 4), directly into Photoshop, doing so assumes that you want to use the adjustments already recorded in the image's metadata. After an image is open in Photoshop itself, you manipulate the pixels directly, rather than manipulating the metadata. When you work in the Camera Raw plug-in, you never change the image itself, only the adjustments recorded in the file's metadata (or in a sidecar file). As you can see in Figure 7-1, the Camera Raw window is filled with tools and sliders. Even though you might not work with all the Camera Raw features, here's the lowdown on the features there.

Adjusting images in Camera

Camera Raw is a powerful enough tool that it's a good idea to get a handle on some of its new features before you go on a tweaking rampage. Here's the quick tour followed by a small rampage. One of the new convenient features of Photoshop CS2 is the addition of auto adjustments in Camera Raw. When you open a raw image in Camera Raw, auto adjustments for Exposure, Shadows, Brightness, and Contrast are automatically made. For some images, auto settings for these adjustments may be sufficient however, I encourage you to look at each one and move the sliders to the left or right to see whether you can get a better result. The steps to make overall adjustments in Camera Raw include these 1. Adjust White Balance and Tint. White balance can be adjusted using either the White Balance selection box or the Temperature control. Both will adjust the white balance of the image if needed. Changing the settings in the White Balance selection box will adjust both the Temperature and Tint to match the...

Getting Acquainted with Camera

Viewing Camera Raw window Using the toolbar Looking at the histogram Using the menu Clicking through image panels Choosing workflow settings Going through the tabs and controls Pressing on-screen buttons near future), you're going to find Camera Raw as your best friend. As a photographer, I've used Camera Raw exclusively to make my color and tonal adjustments since I switched to the raw format some time ago. The more proficient you become at making adjustments in Camera Raw, the less you'll depend on Photoshop to make those corrections. You'll reach that level of enlightenment the moment you discover that after getting a raw image into Photoshop, you don't need to adjust any levels, curves, brightness contrast, or saturation. All of your Camera Raw adjustments were right on . . . You have arrived

Using the Camera RAW Plug-In

Photoshop's Camera RAW plug-in is one of the import modules found in the File menu. To open a RAW image in Photoshop CS, just follow these steps 3. Select a RAW image file. The Camera RAW plug-in will pop up, showing a preview of the image, like the one shown in Figure 3.1. Figure 3.1. Photoshop's Camera RAW filter provides a wealth of options. Figure 3.1. Photoshop's Camera RAW filter provides a wealth of options. Photoshop's Camera RAW plug-in lets you manipulate many of the settings you can control within your camera. I'm using the Nikon D70 as an example here. Your camera probably has similar RAW file settings that can be worked with. Here are some of the most common attributes you can change. This is an overview only. Check your Photoshop Help files for more detailed information on using these controls. I'll also be providing you with information on color correction, exposure compensation, saturation, and other parameters in later chapters of this book. I'll address these topics...

The Camera Raw buttons

I Save Save After making your adjustments, click the Save button to open the DNG Converter dialog box and save a copy of the image as a DNG file. Option-click Alt-click to bypass the DNG Options dialog box and simply save the image as a DNG file. When you close the Camera Raw window, the image is saved automatically. (For more on the DNG file format and the DNG Options dialog box, see the sidebar, The DNG file format. ) i Cancel Reset Clicking Cancel closes the Camera Raw window without making any changes to the image's metadata. Holding down the Option Alt key changes the button to Reset, which restores the settings seen when you first opened the image in Camera Raw. i Done The Done button, with or without the Option Alt key, simply updates the image's metadata with the adjustments you've made and closes Camera Raw without opening the image.

Applying Camera Raw Settings

Bridge has several options for applying Camera Raw settings to files. You can apply settings that have previously been saved as a setting or have already been applied to other raw files. Having the options on hand can be very useful when you need to apply the same setting to multiple files without opening the files. Simply select the files, apply the settings and, straightaway, you can be in a position to view decent previews and slide shows and to create Web Photo Galleries without any further work on the files. If need be, you can undo the work and apply the default Camera Raw settings, and even clear the file of all associated settings. To apply the same settings to multiple files, select the files in Bridge and then choose an item from the Edit apply Camera Raw Settings submenu. Alternatively, right-click (Windows), Ctrl-click (Mac OS) and choose an item from the contextual menu (see Chapter 14 for more information on how to save settings). One other way of applying Camera Raw...

Getting to Know Bridge, Camera Raw, and Photoshop

Processing images in Camera Raw Discerning digital photographers have always wanted a file format that works like a digital equivalent of a traditional negative giving the photographer total control over processing the image data captured by a digital camera. (Sure, you could skip the tweaking and leave it all up to the camera's internal processing software but why settle for blah results ) In the past few years, new digital camera models have delivered just that the raw image format. The software that gives you control of those raw images is called (logically enough) Camera Raw.

Adjusting white balance

White balance, temperature, and tint all relate to each other. White balance is actually a combination of color temperature and tint in Camera Raw, you can set it quickly by choosing any of the predefined temperature-and-tint settings. Setting the white balance can be accomplished in two ways, choosing one of the settings in the White Balance selection, or using the Temperature and Tint controls. If you choose one of the preset White Balance selections, you'll notice that doing so adjusts the temperature and tint for you, as shown in Figure 9-7. Each White Balance selection will dynamically change the Temperature and Tint controls, displaying color temperature in degrees Kelvin. On most digital cameras, you can set the white balance manually (and quickly) by choosing preset White Balance selections but if you happen to choose one that doesn't produce an image with correct temperature and tint, now's your chance to make it right The Camera Raw White Balance, Temperature, and Tint...

Taking advantage of raw format

Of all the advantages that shooting raw offers compared to JPEG, the biggest is control. When shooting photos for my fine-art portfolio or for portraits, I want complete control over the tonal adjustments to my images. Even though the latest digital cameras are pretty handy at processing images, almost all need post-processing help in Photoshop. Shooting in raw format lets me judge and adjust color and exposure for each individual photo if I choose. I don't have to trust blindly that my digital camera automatically produces images that match my taste I have the data I need to make them look right. In addition to giving you control over the processing of your images in raw format, Camera Raw provides other advantages over JPEGs or TIFFs i Full use of all the information captured Shooting in raw format gives the photographer all the data the digital camera's image sensor captures, thus providing the photographer with more data to work with to make adjustments, edits, and sizing later in...

Figure 2.20. This true telephoto shot can be mimicked in Photoshop.

Figure 2.21 represents a combination of best possible worst possible scenario. On the plus side, I managed front row seats next to the dugout on the first-base side for this professional baseball game, and I was armed with an awesome 14-megapixel pro-level digital camera. Unfortunately, when the action started, I had a 28mm non-zoom lens mounted on the camera. So, I ended up with a big picture view that took in most of the infield and rendered the players a lot smaller than I would have liked. Figure 2.22. Cropping the image provides a telephoto effect. Figure 2.22. Cropping the image provides a telephoto effect.

Stage 2: Open Image Files (Process RAW Files)

If you're new to digital photography and image editing, your camera is probably set to capture Jpeg files. If setting your camera to capture RAW files sounds like a new and complex idea, don't worry about doing that now. But once you're more comfortable working with your camera, you should try to set it to capture RAW files. Processing RAW files in Photoshop is covered in the Processing RAW Images section. If you continue to work with film (I shot most of the chapter images in this book on film), you'll need to scan your images into the computer to perform some basic processing steps on them. These steps are covered in the document Working with Film found on the website.

Opening Raw Files in Bridge or Photoshop

Although Camera Raw does the actual processing of raw files, you can edit the Camera Raw settings under the auspices of Bridge or Photoshop. For some workflows, editing in Bridge is preferable, whereas for others you may want to edit in Photoshop. The choices at your disposal are as follows To edit Camera Raw settings in Photoshop, select a file and then choose File Open, or Ctrl+O (Windows), +O (Mac OS). To edit Camera Raw settings in Photoshop and close the Bridge window, select a file and then use Ctrl+Alt+O (Windows), +Opt+O (Mac OS), or Ctrl+Alt+Enter (Windows), +Opt+Return (Mac OS). To edit Camera Raw settings in Bridge, select a file and then choose File Open in Camera Raw, Ctrl+R (Windows), +R (Mac OS), or double-click the file. To edit Camera Raw settings in Photoshop by double-clicking a file, choose Edit Preferences (Windows), Bridge Preferences (Mac OS) and then, in the Advanced pane, deselect Double-click edits Camera Raw settings in Bridge. Click OK to apply changes. To...

Using Camera RAW with Multiple Images

Camera RAW can apply the same settings to multiple images. This is especially useful for images shot under similar lighting conditions and intended to display together. Images processed together show some variation in lighting, but appear to come from the same scene. Obviously, processing multiple images together speeds up the work. To open multiple images in Camera RAW 1 In Bridge, select multiple RAW image files and double-click on one of the images. Select images shot under the same or similar lighting conditions. Or in Photoshop, select multiple RAW images using the File Open dialog. Photoshop displays the Camera RAW dialog with a filmstrip along the left side of all the selected files. 3 Make adjustments to the Exposure, White Balance and WorkflowSpace options as you would for one image. Evaluate the top image as you make these adjustments. Or, click on Save xx Images to process each image and save them back to the same folder. Since you cannot save a processed RAW file, save...

Camera Raw Workflow Settings

At the lower-left corner of the Camera Raw window is a set of Workflow settings that are image-specific, you FigUre 8.8 Camera Raw Workflow options. can change or retain the Workflow settings for all the images you've worked on in Camera Raw. These settings include the color space you want your images to be converted to when they're opened in Photoshop, as well as the bit depth of the files, the image size, and the resolution in which to open the image. Here's the lineup l Size Camera Raw will set the size to the default resolution of your digital camera. If you know you're going to be producing large prints or smaller images for your image, you can set the resolution higher or lower, and let Camera Raw do the resampling (which is quicker than resizing the image later in Photoshop). This feature can come in handy when you have to process multiple images in Camera Raw. For individual images, some photographers save resizing for later, as a step in their output-preparation workflow.

Adobe Camera RAW

Adobe Camera RAW integrates RAW files with Photoshop easily and provides a simple integrated interface for basic adjustments before opening them in Photoshop. These features make Adobe Camera RAW one of the best RAW utilities available. Camera RAW supports most digital camera RAW file formats. Check Adobe's web site to confirm support for any particular camera. (A search on the site for Camera RAW yields the appropriate page.) Adobe has done a good job of keeping Camera RAW up to date as new cameras (and RAW formats) are released. Newer cameras may require that you download a newer version of the Camera RAW utility from the Adobe web site. Camera RAW provides some very rich options for editing that quickly generate very good looking images. Use Camera RAW for quick processing and leave fine-tuning in the Photoshop workflow. The Photoshop workflow allows for more precision and fine-tuning work using layers. The default settings for Camera RAW are a good place to start. The White...

Camera Raw Controls

The Camera Raw control panels, also known as tabs (see Figure 8-9), are where most of your work will happen when you process images. Color, tone, detail, lens, curve, and calibration adjustments are available in each tab. Figure 8-9 Camera Raw controls. Figure 8-9 Camera Raw controls. l Adjust tab (Ctrl+Alt+1, +Option+1 on a Mac) This tab contains all the controls that adjust color and tonal values in an image White Balance, Temperature, Tint, Exposure, Shadows, Brightness, Contrast, and Saturation. l Detail tab (Ctrl+Alt+2, +Option+2 on a Mac) This tab is home to the Sharpness, Luminance Smoothing, and Color Noise Reduction controls. Though I recommend that you use Camera Raw sharpening only for viewing images (save the real sharpening for later, in Photoshop), you can use this tab to reduce grayscale noise (with Luminance Smoothing) and turn down the color noise (with the Color Noise control) a very welcome feature i Calibrate tab (Ctrl+Alt+5, +Option+5 on a Mac) The controls in the...

RAW Files

Many digital cameras can also save their images as RAW files. These are unprocessed digital camera images. Photoshop can process them to a higher-quality image than JPEG files. One of the biggest advantages of RAW files is they have more that 8 bits per channel of information and can, therefore, be edited more than JPEG files. Every camera manufacturer has its own proprietary RAW file format, the term RAW refers to a category of file formats. It encompasses a wide range of formats include NEF (Nikon RAW), CRW (Canon), as well as many other formats. Adobe Photoshop CS2 supports most RAW file formats.

Telephoto Effects

Photoshop can help you compensate for that long telephoto you can't afford, or which isn't available for your digital camera. Telephotos are great for bringing your subject closer when you can't get close physically. Thisdocument iscreated with trialversionof CHM2PDF Htot2.16.100 are actually more widely separated than they appear to be. Tele lenses are often used in those car-chase sequences you see in the movies. From the head-on view, it looks like the hero is weaving in and out of cars that are only a few feet apart. In real life, they were probably separated by 40 feet or more, and crammed together through the magic of a telephoto lens. Unfortunately, most non-SLR digital cameras don't have really long telephoto lenses available. Some digital models may have skimpy 3 1 zoom lenses that simulate at their maximum the view you'd get with, say, a short 105mm or 135mm lens on a conventional 35mm camera. Some semi-pro models offer 10 1 and 12 1 zooms (or better) that still don't bring...

1. Open a raw image using Bridge.

Start Bridge by choosing FileOBrowse or by clicking the Go to Bridge button on the Photoshop Option bar. Choose a raw image you want to process by double-clicking the thumbnail of the image (or you can right-click the image and choose Open with Camera Raw from the flyout menu). Figure 4-6 shows the image loaded in the Camera Raw window. Figure 4-6 The Camera Raw window. Figure 4-6 The Camera Raw window.

Adjusting the Image with the Adjust

Finally we're ready to edit some images in Camera Raw I start by taking care of the major business first making color and tonal corrections (including curves) to my image in the Adjust tab (Ctrl+Alt+1, or +Option+1 on a Mac). When you first open an image in Camera Raw, the default tab shown is the Adjust tab shown in Figure 9-6. The Adjust tab is where you'll make all of your color and tonal adjustments that were described in Chapter 7, white balance (or color and tint), exposure, shadows, brightness, contrast, and saturation. I take you through each of these in order.

Correcting Images in Photoshop as a Workflow

I've found that the more practice I got making adjustments in Camera Raw, the fewer corrections I had to make in Photoshop. Better still, accurately adjusting white balance, exposure, shadows, brightness, contrast, and color saturation in Camera Raw isn't destructive. Making those same adjustments in Photoshop can destroy valuable image data that might affect the quality of my images, especially if I print them larger than 8x10 inches. Unfortunately, not all images can be adjusted in Camera Raw only (well, yeah) the raw ones Let's not forget all those JPEGs and TIFFs that we shot in our misspent youth, or perhaps are even still producing. (Okay, I admit it My everyday compact camera doesn't have raw as an option only JPEG and I take photos with that Nikon 7900 almost every day ) But we can still make the best of the images we have. Behold For fine-tuning images processed in Camera Raw or photos shot originally in JPEG or TIFF format (such as the one in Figure 4-10) I offer the...

Caught Calibrating Again!

The Calibrate tab (Ctrl+Alt+5, +Option+5 on a Mac) wasn't meant for you to apply color correction to your images, but to fine-tune the camera profiles that are built into Camera Raw. When updates to Camera Raw are available (at http for you to load onto your computer, typically those updates include profiles for new models of digital camera. When Adobe adds a new digital camera model to Camera Raw, they program in specific color profiles for that particular model digital camera. The controls in the Calibrate tab (see Figure 9-28) are intended to be used to fine-tune the camera profile in Camera Raw with what your own digital camera is producing. Most photographers wouldn't go through the hassle of calibrating their digital camera to the profiles available in Camera Raw, after all, the profiles provided work very well as they are set up now. Another reason, it's a real hassle to calibrate your digital camera To actually recalibrate the Camera Raw built-in profiles, you would...

Processing Raw Images

A rnn to the raw workflow In Chapter 8, I show you all the neat tools and con- trols Camera Raw has to offer. Here's where those tools go to work processing raw images. Developing and using a consistent workflow to process your raw images (while taking advantage of Bridge automation features) will help you become more efficient. Camera Raw gives the photographer some serious tools for correcting color and tone. If you take the time to get some practice at using them properly, you'll find these corrections are actually easier to make in Camera Raw than in Photoshop. I've gotten to the point that many of the images I process in Camera Raw are pretty much ready for prime time when I open them in Photoshop. As you'll find, the better you get at making these adjustments in Camera Raw, the less you have to do later.

Working with Images in Bridge

When you've successfully transferred that batch of raw images to a folder where they just wait for a good tweaking, they're in Adobe territory. Here's where some handy new Photoshop CS2 and Camera Raw capabilities come into play in particular Bridge. New to Photoshop CS2 is Adobe Bridge. Bridge is an upgrade to the File Browser we came to love in previous versions of Photoshop but it's better Bridge is now a standalone application that can be launched independent of the Creative Suite programs, or from within Photoshop CS2, Illustrator CS2, GoLive CS2, and InDesign CS2. Bridge provides better integration between the Creative Suite programs, but if you use only Photoshop CS2, it works great as your standalone or integrated program to organize, browse, or locate photos. Bridge also serves as the launching point to process raw images in Camera Raw.

Understanding Exposure and Color

Understanding white balance and saturation Making tonal adjustments Evaluating images J s you can probably tell by now, I'm a huge fan of Camera Raw and Photoshop. It rates right up there with football, big lenses, ice cream, and good science fiction on TV. (Live long and prosper ) Though you can do some amazing things with Camera Raw and Photoshop, the key to really getting the most out of your images is first to understand exposure, color, and tonality After you get those down, the rest becomes easier, and a lot more fun The purpose of this chapter isn't to dazzle you with technical terms and the scientific background of image sensors, light, and color. Instead, I explain the different color adjustments and then get into what the tools are for adjusting tonality. Understanding both color and tonality sorts out what tasks need to be done when processing images in Camera Raw, and fine-tuning your images in Photoshop.

1. Make sure the correct color profiles are applied.

Camera Raw differ from those you specified in the Camera Raw Workflow settings to match the color space in Photoshop, you get a Color Settings Mismatch message like the one shown in Figure 10-3. At least the Embedded Profile Mismatch window lets you choose the profile embedded with the image (here, the Space setting chosen in Camera Raw) or the color space setting made in the Photoshop Color Settings.

Using a Step-by-Step Raw Process

I've gone over workflows in Chapter 4, but here is where we really dive into the raw details of Camera Raw. As with all the processes I show you throughout this book, processing images in raw requires its own step-by-step progression of tasks Take a look at your image as opened in Camera Raw. Be sure to take advantage of the histogram, the shadows and highlights, and the clipping warnings. 2. Correct the white balance. White balance (the combination of temperature and tint) takes a little getting used to adjusting. The best way to become proficient is to experiment using the different white balance choices Camera Raw provides. If the Camera Raw default contrast setting isn't doing it for you, use the Contrast control to increase or decrease the contrast in the image. Increase the amount of color in your image using the Saturation control. As with other adjustments that apply color or tone in Camera Raw, increasing saturation helps bring out the color in your image. Adobe's new DNG...

Reading the Histogram and RGB Values

The histogram and the RGB readout give you information about the color and exposure values of the image as it appears in the Camera Raw Image Preview. The RGB readout displays the Red, Green, and Blue color values when you point to a selection in the Image Preview with any of four tools (Zoom, Hand, White Balance, or Color Sampler). The histogram, as shown in Figure 8-3, shows the current exposure setting of the image. Figure 8-3 The Camera Raw Histogram and RGB readout. who's processing images in Camera Raw In essence, they are both visual tools you can use to evaluate the adjustments you're making to the image.

5. Apply sharpness and luminance/color noise adjustments (see Figure 4-8).

The Camera Raw Detail tab (shown in Figure 4-8) offers three controls for applying sharpness and noise reduction to both the luminance and the color of the image. Okay, what does that techno-babble really mean Simply that you can sharpen the outlines of the image, and reduce those tiny messy bits in the grayscale areas, and get rid of the color-speckle thingies that show up in the color areas of the image. Both are referred to as noise. Save the sharpening of any image for the very last steps in your image-processing workflow. Use the Sharpness adjustment only for previewing images in Camera Raw. (There's more about sharpening images in Chapter 12 you might want to review it when preparing images for output.) You can set Camera Raw Preferences to limit the application of sharpening to Preview Only. (I show you how to set Camera Raw Preferences in Chapter 9.)

7. Click Open to open the image in Photoshop CS2.

You can also click Done, but that will just save the Camera Raw settings for that image you've just made, and then take you back to Bridge. Clicking the Save button will allow you to save the raw file (and its sidecar file with your adjustments) to a folder of your choosing. You can also specify another format for the file raw, DNG, TIFF, JPEG, or PSD but for the most part, you'll be opening the image in Photoshop for overall correction and image editing. You may have noticed I didn't include the Lens or Calibrate tabs in the Camera Raw workflow described here. That's because normally these controls are used sparingly you won't need them for most of your images. (Even so, I cover those tabs and their controls in Chapter 9.)

Part IV: Photoshop CS2 Image-Processing Workflows

All aspects of processing images in this book are presented in separate workflows that make up your overall image-processing activities. This part explains the workflows needed to process images in Photoshop after you've converted them in Camera Raw. Chapter 10 shows you workflows for correcting color and tone in Photoshop. Chapter 11 explains image editing as a workflow you know, removing red eye, blemishes, and miscellaneous unwanted parts of your image (use your imagination). Chapter 12 is dedicated toward preparing images for output by correctly sizing them, applying color profiles, and routing them through an efficient printing workflow.

Adjusting Color and Tone in Photoshop

Djusting color and tone in Camera Raw might leave you with the feel ing that most of your work on an image is done and sometimes it is. What you're actually accomplishing in Camera Raw is applying basic adjustments to an image that wasn't processed in the digital camera, preparing it for Photoshop (where you can go wild with it). Chances are the photo still needs some minor color and tonal tweaks which is what this chapter is all about. Organizing those tweaks into an efficient routine is what I call the overall-adjustments workflow a fine-tuning of the color and tonal corrections made in Camera Raw, tailored to get the photos ready for output that has a specific profile say, a Web site or that photo-quality glossy paper you're loading into your inkjet printer.

Where to Go from Here

To make things even easier, processes are broken down into step-by-step workflows (gotta love that word), with a bunch of actual Photoshop screen-shots and photos to provide visual cues. If you want to skip right to the part on using Bridge (Part II), go ahead Want to see how to process images in Camera Raw (Part III) You can skip to that step, too. I've also offered detailed workflows for making overall corrections, edits, and preparing images for output in Photoshop (Part IV). Consider this book an end-to-end guide for using Photoshop and Camera Raw to transform your raw images into exactly what you want to see.

Developing an overall corrections workflow

As in Camera Raw, the most efficient approach is to do your global color and tonal corrections as a consistent, step-by-step workflow. After you get used to making any necessary corrections in a particular order every time, you can whip through those images, making corrections like a black-belt Photoshop master.

Part II: Image-Management Workflow with Adobe Bridge

Adobe Bridge is what ties together all the Photoshop processes, your habits of image management, and the tweaks you make in Camera Raw and Photoshop. Image management, in essence, is keeping your digital files organized and backed up for safekeeping. After all, before you can use 'em, you have to be able to find 'em, and they have to be where you put 'em. So Chapter 5 shows you how to get around Bridge and take advantage of its file-management functions. Chapter 6 shows you how to add information to digital images to organize and reference them even better for future usage.

264 Part V:The Part of Tens

I'd be remiss in my duties if I showed you only how to stitch together panoramas without first mentioning how to shoot them For best results, take 3 or 4 photos of a scene, all with the same exposure and white-balance setting. All you need is a really cool panoramic scene to shoot, and a couple of basic techniques. l Meter the main part of the scene. I recommend using manual shutter-speed, aperture, and white-balance settings. Look at your LCD or view-finder to see how your digital camera is metering the scene. Switch to manual mode, and then set your shutter speed and aperture to match your digital camera's first meter reading of the scene. The idea is to ensure that the exposure is the same for every photo sequence you shoot. Additionally, set your white balance manually to match the conditions you're shooting in, such as daylight, overcast, or shade. l Review your photos. Using your digital camera's LCD, review your photos to make sure you achieved the results you intended. Check...

The breakfast-by-the-lake example

Figure 7-6 shows an original image of Bambi, and the same image adjusted for color and tonality in Camera Raw. I first evaluated the white balance of the image, and decided to increase the temperature slightly to add a little warmth (a little more orange and yellow). I then actually decreased exposure, not to correct the image, but to make it slightly darker. I decided to increase shadows a bit (remember, I like my dark areas to be a little darker than normal sometimes), and then increased the saturation to bring out some color. Figure 7-6 shows an original image of Bambi, and the same image adjusted for color and tonality in Camera Raw. I first evaluated the white balance of the image, and decided to increase the temperature slightly to add a little warmth (a little more orange and yellow). I then actually decreased exposure, not to correct the image, but to make it slightly darker. I decided to increase shadows a bit (remember, I like my dark areas to be a little darker than normal...

Getting to Know Color and Tonality

Camera Raw gives you control of a lot of important adjustments in your photos, but before you dive into your raw images, I explain what you need to look for and evaluate in your images before you start making adjustments to white balance, tint, exposure, shadows, brightness, contrast, and saturation. Collectively, those adjustments are referred to as overall adjustments. (Gotta love those fancy technical terms.)

Manipulating Digital Negatives

Many cameras can also save in TIFF format, which, although compressed, discards none of the information in the final image file. However, both JPEG and TIFF files are quite different from the original information captured by the camera. They have been processed by the camera's software as the raw data is converted to either JPEG or TIFF format and saved onto your flash memory card or other camera media. The settings you have made in your camera, in terms of white balance, color, sharpening, and so forth, are all applied to the raw image data. You can make some adjustments to the image later using Photoshop CS, but you are always working with an image that has already been processed, sometimes heavily. The information captured at the moment of exposure can also be stored in a proprietary, native format designed by your camera's manufacturer. These formats differ from camera to camera, but are called Camera RAW, or just RAW for convenience. These digital negatives contain all the...

Organizing images in folders

When first you open images in Camera Raw and Photoshop, get into the habit of immediately saving the image file to a working image folder, in Photoshop's PSD format. That way the saved image becomes the one you're working on, and resides in the working folder. The original stays intact, and you eliminate the risk of altering the original accidentally.

Features than you might expect.

Photoshop wasn't the first image editor for the Macintosh by any means, and actually drew a great deal on the concepts and interface popularized by Apple's own MacPaint as early as 1984. There were programs with names like PixelPaint, ImageStudio, and SuperPaint, and, notably, Silicon Beach's Digital Darkroom. But the precocious Photoshop was the first program to really grab the imagination of photographers and the publications that employed them. Each new version of Photoshop has improved on the last, offering new capabilities. Some have been rather earth-shattering in their scope, such as Photoshop's move from floating selections to full-fledged layers in Photoshop 3.0. Others have had chiefly ergonomic or convenience benefits, such as the Palette Well introduced with Photoshop 7. Users screamed for a few features for a decade or more before they became a reality, such as the ability to bend text along a path, introduced in Photoshop CS. Other features were relegated to junior...

Figure 1.2. Can you find all the traditional photographic techniques used to produce

The advantage photographers have is that they've seen all these techniques before, and have probably used them. The ability to reproduce every one of these effects within Photoshop is a powerful additional tool. In truth, Figure 1.2 never saw a piece of film. It was taken with a digital camera using the normal (nontelephoto non-wide-angle) zoom setting, cropped tightly in Photoshop to simulate a telephoto picture, and then a sun was added and flag colors were manipulated to create the image you see here. Don't panic if your photographic interests don't run to camera techniques or darkroom magic. Even if your photography skills emphasize other worthy areas of expertise, such as composition or the mechanics of camera operation, you'll still find Photoshop a comfortable fit with what you already know, and a great tool for applying what you plan to learn in the future. From its earliest beginnings, Photoshop was modeled on photographic concepts. Many features incorporated into the latest...

Capturing Color Images

You'll find more information about color scanners in my book Mastering Digital Scanning with Slides, Film, and Transparencies (ISBN 1-59200-141-6) and lots more nuts-and-bolts on digital cameras in Mastering Digital Photography (ISBN 1-59200-114-9). If you want to learn how digital cameras capture color, check out Mastering Digital Photography or Mastering Digital SLR Photography. All three books are available from Course Technology, and you can find more information about them at my website,

Images in the Digital Domain

There's so much power in Photoshop CS that if you're a photographer and don't use all the tools it has to offer, you're putting a crimp in your creativity, and seriously restricting your flexibility. For the devoted photographer, both amateur and professional, not using Photoshop is like limiting yourself to a single lens or zoom setting, using only one film, or using a digital camera exclusively in fully automatic mode. (And if you'd like to break out of that mold, you might want to check out my books Mastering Digital SLR Photography and Mastering Digital Photography, both from Course Technology.) Certainly, some incredible images have been created by photographers who work under mind-boggling limitations (a few ingenious pictures taken with pinhole cameras come to mind). For example, one of the photos shown in Figure 1.1 was taken with a sophisticated digital SLR camera equipped with a 700 macro close-up lens, and using studio lighting equipment priced at another grand or two. The...

Raw Versus Other Formats

Okay, raw format may not be ideal for every photographic situation. I shot thousands of images in JPEG format before the raw format made it into advanced compact digital SLR cameras. Many of those photos are permanent staples in my portfolio. And yes, I admit it I still shoot JPEGs sometimes. I carry around a compact digital camera that produces great 7 megapixel images (Figure 2-3, for example). My compact camera is convenient for snapshots or interesting subjects I come across while driving around town and it serves as a backup while I'm shooting nature photos. But for those images (as for all my more serious shooting), I use my digital SLR in raw format, of course i Loss of image data while making adjustments in Photoshop Shooting JPEG, you can run into this problem a lot. Without the lossless overall color and tonal adjustments that you'd get in Camera Raw, you have to make those adjustments in Photoshop and they'd better be right the first time. You lose image data every time you...

Working with the Lens

The Lens tab (press Ctrl+Alt+3 or +Option+3 on a Mac) gives the photographer the power to correct imperfections that can occur due to lens shortcomings. (Ack, wait Don't go throwing away your digital camera or the lenses you bought for your digital SLR The fact of the matter is that almost all lenses display chromatic aberrations or vignetting from time to time.) As a rule, lens shortcomings appear when you adjust your zoom to either the extreme wide-angle or telephoto settings or when the lens aperture is either wide open or closed down. Today's compact and prosumer model digital cameras come equipped with lenses of excellent quality, and they only keep getting better.

Figure 6.1. Our eyes don't perceive the full spectrum of color, but capture hues through three diffe

Digital cameras work something like color film, responding to red, green, and blue light. However, except for some alternative technologies, such as the Foveon sensor currently used only in the Sigma SD9 and SD10 digital SLR cameras, and the seldom seen Polaroid X530 point-and-shoot model, camera sensors do not have separate red green blue layers. Instead, each pixel in a digital camera image is sensitive to only one color, and interpolation is used to calculate the correct color for a particular photosite if something other than the color it's been assigned falls on that pixel. And it gets worse The models used to represent those colors in the computer also treat colors in different ways. That's why an image you see in real life may not look exactly the same in a color slide, a color print, a scanned image, on your screen, or when reproduced by a color printer or printing press. Simply converting an image from RGB to CMYK (more on that later) can change the colors significantly. The...

Compressing Distances

As I mentioned earlier, telephoto lenses are also used to compress apparent distances. The good news is that this effect, sometimes called telephoto distortion has nothing to do with the lens itself. It's simply an effect caused by moving farther away from a subject. Now move 50 feet away from the first post. The second post will now be only 1.2X as far from you as the first post (60 feet instead of 50), the second will be 1.4X as far, the third will be 1.6X as far, and the fourth post will be 1.8X the distance. The apparent distance between them will be much less in your photograph. However, the fence posts will be waaay down the road from you, so if you use a telephoto lens to bring them closer, you'll see the images as relatively compressed together, as shown in Figure 2.28. The exact same thing happens if you Telephoto perspective can flatten images in which the distance between the objects is not so obvious. Figure 2.29 shows a wide view of the Spanish town of Segovia, taken from...

Selective Focus And Digital Cameras

The depth-of-field bonus of digital cameras comes from the relatively short focal length lenses they use. The maximum telephoto setting of a typical non-SLR digital camera may be 32mm (producing the same field of view as a 150mm lens on a 35mm camera). However, the depth-of-field provided by the digital camera at that setting is much closer to that of a wide-angle lens than to a telephoto lens. As a result, it may be very difficult to use selective focus with a digital camera, unless you're taking a picture very, very close to your subject. Photoshop CS can fix that

Correcting Perspective

Thisdocument iscreatedwithtrial versionofCHM2PDF Pilot2.16.100vith images that need a minor amount of correction. Figure 2.64 shows an image taken with an ultra-wide-angle lens tilted way back to include the top of the building. It exhibits the typical falling backwards look that perspective distortion produces. We can partially compensate for the distortion and improve this photo.

Stitching Two Photos Together

A fourth way to create panoramas is to take several full frame photos with a digital or film camera, lining them up as best you can by eye, and then stitching them together to create one very wide photo. Such photos have been pasted together in the past, and then rephotographed and printed, but Photoshop makes it easy to mate a series of photos digitally. The advantage of this method is that each picture contains the maximum resolution possible with a full frame digital or film camera image. Another plus is that it's not necessary to shoot with a wide-angle lens, which tends to load the image up with foreground and sky, while pushing the important subject matter way, way back. You can move to a good vantage point and take your set of pictures with a normal lens or telephoto, then join them to create one seamless image. The chief disadvantage of this method is that it's tricky to produce the original images, and time-consuming to join them.

Lower-contrast image on the right.

Figure 2.27 shows my baseball picture after I experimented with the Unsharp Mask filter to optimize the sharpness. The view is still not as good as a front row seat, but then, I didn't have to pay a lot for my tickets or tote around a mammoth telephoto lens, either. If nothing else, Photoshop helped me create a souvenir of an exciting game. Figure 2.27. Photoshop simulated a long telephoto lens by sharpening this tightly Figure 2.27. Photoshop simulated a long telephoto lens by sharpening this tightly

When creating a panorama.

This next exercise will introduce you to the basics of stitching, using only two pictures to start. Load the Toledo Left and Toledo Right photos from the website. These two pictures were taken on a hill outside Toledo, Spain, at the exact spot where the artist El Greco stood in the 16th century to craft his immortal painting View of Toledo. Unfortunately, the location is so far from the town that a wide-angle picture of the entire panorama displays more hillside and sky than actual town. Reaching out with a telephoto lens to grab the medieval city on its perch above the Tagus River yields a minimum of two pictures, shown in Figures 5.21 and 5.22. I'm going to

Those chromatic aberrations

Chromatic aberrations occur in areas where your lens can't focus red, green, and blue light along edges of the image to the necessary degree of precision. The Lens tab gives you two controls to counteract those aberrations the Fix Red Cyan Fringe slider and the Fix Blue Yellow Fringe slider.

Black-and-White Infrared Film

Infrared film is difficult to use, too. Light meters don't accurately measure the amount of infrared light, so exposures may vary quite a bit from your meter reading. You should bracket exposures on either side of the correct reading to increase your odds of getting a good picture. Infrared film must be loaded and handled in total darkness, too, and your fancy new autofocus lens might not focus properly with infrared film. Fortunately, faking an infrared photo with Photoshop is simple to do.

Chapter 6: Correcting Your Colors

This chapter offers four ways of adjusting color in terms photographers will understand immediately. If you've ever slipped a CC 10 Cyan filter into a filter pack, or stocked your camera bag with an 85B or 80A conversion filter, you'll appreciate the advice here. However, even if your color correction experience extends no further than using the white-balance control on your digital camera, this chapter has everything you need to correct your colors in Photoshop.

Problem: Wrong Light Source

Reason All color films are standardized, or balanced, for a particular color of light, and digital cameras default to a particular white balance. Both are measured using a scale called color temperature. Color temperatures were assigned by heating a mythical black body radiator and recording the spectrum of light it emitted at a given temperature in degrees Kelvin. So, daylight at noon has a color temperature in the 5500 to 6000 range. Indoor illumination is around 3400 . Hotter temperatures produce bluer images (think blue-white hot) while cooler temperatures produce redder images (think of a dull-red glowing ember). Because of human nature, though, bluer images are called cool and redder images are called warm, even though their color temperatures are actually reversed. At the same time, your digital camera expects to see illumination of a certain color temperature by default. Under bright lighting conditions it may assume the light source is daylight and balance the picture...

Lurking in the shadows

With white balance and exposure adjusted, the next step is adjusting the image for the shadow tonal values. The Shadows control is located just under the Exposure control, which is a pretty clear hint about what to do next Move the Shadows slider to the right (to darken the shadow areas of the image) or left (to lighten up the shadow areas).

Figure 6.14. Some fluorescent lights can produce a greenish image.

Solution Use the Fluorescent setting of your digital camera. If working with film, your camera retailer can provide you with color filters recommended for particular kinds of fluorescent lamps. These filters are designed to add only the amounts and types of colors needed. Since it's difficult to correct for fluorescent lights digitally, you'll want to investigate this option if you shoot many pictures under fluorescents and are getting greenish results. You can also shoot in the RAW format if your digital camera has that feature, and correct the color as you convert in Photoshop.

Photoshop CS Photo Filters

Photoshop CS has a Photo Filters effect hidden in the Image Adjustments menu. It's primarily of use to photographers who want to apply familiar filter effects to their image, rather than use the program's color correction facilities. Or, it can be used to quickly add filter-like color for special effects. For example, films are produced (even today) balanced for a particular kind of light source. The most common films are designed to produce accurate colors when exposed under daylight illumination, but a few professional films are balanced for the much more orange light produced by incandescent lamps. Back in the olden days, most photographers owned a set of filters that would convert one kind of illumination to the other (at the cost of an f-stop or two of exposure). A tungsten-balanced film can be exposed under daylight if a Kodak Wratten 85B filter is used to correct the light. Even if you're not using film, you can get this kind of wrong color if your white balance is set...

Correcting indecent exposure

(Well, sometimes that happens when you shoot raw, right ) I think the Exposure control in Camera Raw is worth the price of Photoshop itself Okay, serious photographers always strive to achieve the best exposures possible for their images, but difficult lighting conditions can sometimes throw a digital camera's exposure off by a few f-stops. Figure 9-9 shows an example of difficult lighting conditions backlighting. I was taking a photo of this troublemaker (he always gets into the bird feeders in the garden), but the sun was coming in behind the subject, resulting in underexposure. Backlit conditions are great for silhouettes, but not when you want to capture detail of the main subject, as in my case here, Rocky the squirrel. The Camera Raw Exposure control was the very thing I needed to expose the main subject of the image correctly. Figure 9-9 shows an example of difficult lighting conditions backlighting. I was taking a photo of this troublemaker (he always gets into the bird...

Introducing the Digital Negative (DNG)

Up to this point in the digital-photography era, raw file formats haven't been uniform. Each digital camera manufacturer that offers raw in its digital cameras maintains a proprietary format. (Imagine what it would have been like if all camera makers designed their cameras only to work with their own proprietary film. Or how about driving cars that only run on one brand of fuel You get the idea.) Unfortunately, due to a lack of industry standards, camera manufacturers are forced to offer their own versions of raw images. As if to add confusion for photographers, manufacturers package software with their digital cameras and it only converts raw images shot in their version of raw format. Some of these programs work very well, but if you also shoot raw images using other digital cameras from other manufacturers, you can't use the software to convert those images. Camera Raw, at least, works with raw images from most makers' digital cameras a step in the right direction. Adobe has...

Chapter 1. Photoshop and Photography from 50,000 Feet

There's no rest for the leader of the pack. Although Photoshop has been the undisputed top dog among image editors for as long as most of us have been working with digital photography, Adobe's flagship pixel pusher has not been resting on its laurels. From the moment I finished work on the first edition of this book, which dealt with Photoshop 7.0, Adobe has been enhancing the program non-stop, adding features of special interest to photographers, such as enhanced manipulation of digital camera RAW files, new filters, and improved red-eye correction tools. Many improvements have been going on behind the scenes, too, where they are less obvious until you start digging. Photoshop CS2 now can work with more than 2GB of RAM, which can be important for photographers who've loaded up their computers to deal with the 8- to 16-megapixel images that are becoming common among serious advanced digital cameras. Adobe has been gradually folding the features of its stand-alone web-oriented tool,...

Chapter 2. Camera and Lens Effects in Photoshop

With the new popularity of digital single lens reflex (SLR) cameras, the focus on lenses and their effects has increased. Everyone wants to get the compressed look found in long telephoto shots, or simulate the excitement possible by zooming a lens during exposure. But not every digital photographer is equipped with a camera that has a super-long zoom range, nor can those who've sprung for the price of a dSLR always afford to buy every lens they want to own. Lenses are very cool, but you may not have all the lens power you really want. Of course, photography is not the only artistic endeavor in which tools can hold as much fascination as the process itself, or even the end result. Serious cabinetmakers may be just as proud of their sophisticated new hollow chisel mortiser as they are of the drop-front desk crafted with it. In the same vein, it's common to meet a photographer who feels you can never be too rich, too thin, or have too many lenses. Fortunately, you don't actually need a...

Part I: Getting Your Feet

Okay, not all of us plunge right into digital photography (underwater or otherwise). So Part I offers an overview for the Photoshop and Camera Raw concepts covered in the rest of the book. It's a quick-start for shooting in raw format and getting your images into your computer. Chapter 1 briefly introduces shooting raw, using Bridge, and then using Camera Raw and Photoshop to process your images. Chapter 2 goes into more detail about the benefits of raw format, and takes a look at Adobe's new DNG file format. Chapter 3 speaks to a topic near and dear to my heart color management. Chapter 4 explains the workflows covered throughout the book, and why they can improve your overall photography and your Photoshop skills.

Overall Adjustments as a Workflow

As with any other process explained in this book, this chapter explains the overall adjustment of an image's color and tones in Photoshop step by step -a workflow approach. Although that process is similar for both Photoshop and Camera Raw, making adjustments in Photoshop is more of a strictly linear process. In particular, watch for these differences when you adjust color and tone in Photoshop After making color and tonal adjustments in Camera Raw, you'll notice that the actual color and tones may change in appearance when you apply different color profiles or turn on proofing in Photoshop (check out the example shown in Figure 10-1). In Photoshop, you'll need to make further overall adjustments to match your intended output. (If the building looks familiar, it's where The Beatles recorded Get Back on the rooftop and the rest of Let It Be in the studio below. (Offhand, I think they passed the audition.) i Make color and tonal adjustments in layers In Camera Raw, you make color and...

6. Fine-tune the tonality and contrast, using the Curve tab.

The Curve tab (shown in Figure 4-9) lets you fine-tune an image's color characteristics (tonality). Unlike the Curves adjustment in Photoshop, the Camera Raw Curves adjustment works on top of the adjustments made in the Adjust tab it works like an adjustment's own fine-tuning. I find that making careful changes in the Adjust tab reduces any need to make changes in the Curve tab.

Working with the Toolbar Controls

The Camera Raw toolbar, shown in Figure 8-2, consists of the basic tools needed to edit an image. Here's a rundown White Balance tool White Balance tool Color Sampler tool Figure 8-2 Tool palette and Option bar in Camera Raw. Color Sampler tool Figure 8-2 Tool palette and Option bar in Camera Raw. l White Balance tool (press I) Use this tool to select a neutral gray area of the image to use in improving the white balance. l Crop tool (press C) You can use this new tool to crop images in Camera Raw instead of waiting until the image is loaded into Photoshop. l Straighten tool (press A) Cool tool alert This is a great addition to Camera Raw you can use it to straighten images without the hassle of straightening in Photoshop. Now making that horizon straight is easier than ever. l Preview check box Preview is a fun feature to use. If you want to compare what your image looks like with and without adjustments made in Camera Raw, you can toggle the image between those views by checking and...

Photoshop's RAW Support

Photoshop CS now includes a Camera RAW plug-in (which was formerly an extra-cost option with Photoshop 7) that works quite well. It can be used only with the particular digital cameras that Adobe supports, typically from Nikon, Canon, or Konica Minolta and quite a few other vendors. In addition, Camera RAW supports the new Adobe Digital Negative (DNG) format. DNG is Adobe's attempt to create a common RAW format that can be used by all the different camera types. The list of supported cameras at the time this book was published is a long one, shown in Table 3.1 You can also expect that camera models introduced after Photoshop CS from the same vendors are also supported. For example, although the Canon EOS 350 XT and Konica Minolta A200 debuted after the original Photoshop CS, their RAW formats are similar to their predecessor models and are fully supported. You can find the latest updates that list compatible cameras at

Chapter 3. Darkroom Techniques with Photoshop CS2

Fortunately, there's no need to throw the spectacular images out with the stopbath water. Photoshop includes a whole raft of features that let you re-create the most useful darkroom techniques quickly and repeatedly, without risk of wasting film, paper, or chemicals. You can even manipulate your digital negatives using your digital camera's RAW format.

Evaluating Color and Tonality

When you've got a good handle on what color and tonality means as applied to Camera Raw and Photoshop, the next skill to master is evaluating images. Thankfully, Camera Raw and Photoshop offer the photographer such tools as histograms (which I get to in Chapter 8), and clipping warnings to help you evaluate color and tonality. But don't forget the best judge of all yourself Yes, it's true that Camera Raw and Photoshop enable you to make precise overall adjustments, but sometimes the dominant factor in adjusting color and tone must be the artistic taste of the photographer. Camera Raw and Photoshop are artistic tools, after all the completed image should reflect your personal interpretation. Sometimes that means adding a touch more color, saturation, or contrast to an image to get a specific effect.

Just Layering Around

Making overall adjustments in Photoshop is different from making adjustments in Camera Raw. In Camera Raw, adjustments are made in linear increments, each adjustment is added to the metadata of the image, leaving the original file intact. In Photoshop, however, these adjustments are pictured and presented in layers you do each one as if it were on a transparent overlay

Image Settings

The Image Settings selection box (see Figure 8-4) lets you view different versions of the image as you make adjustments. Choosing Image Settings, for example, shows you the image as it was before you made adjustments. Choosing Camera Raw Defaults restores the default image settings in Camera Raw. And choosing Previous Conversion applies the Camera Raw settings from the last image you worked on in Camera Raw. The Custom selection shows how the image looks after applying the adjustments you've made. Camera Raw Defaults Figure 8-4 The Image Settings selection box in Camera Raw. Camera Raw Menu For some reason, they almost hid the Camera Raw menu If you look hard enough, next to the Image Settings selection, there's that little triangle thingie button, that's the Camera Raw menu shown in Figure 8-5. The menu includes commands to load, save, or delete settings or subsets of settings. It's an impressive list of alternatives for applying settings, including some really helpful timesaving...

Hello Photoshop CS2!

Adjusted in Camera Raw Figure 1-13 Original image, and the image adjusted in Camera Raw. CS2 (Well, back to it anyway.) Thanks for being patient, but in this chapter, it's first things first Bridge and Camera Raw are, after all, the first steps you take as you get into processing raw images. When you're familiar with browsing images, opening them, and then converting them in Camera Raw, you're ready to poke around in Photoshop CS2, check out the new features, and dive back into processing your images with a slew of new tools to use.

Control Buttons

Adjusted images - without having FigUre 8-10 Control buttons for Camera Raw. to open them in Photoshop. To the rescue come the Camera Raw control buttons, located to the lower right of the Camera Raw window, as shown in Figure 8-10. i Save (Ctrl+Alt+S, +Option+S on a Mac) This button saves the adjustments to the image while leaving the Camera Raw window open. i Open (Ctrl+O, +O on a Mac) Use this one only when you want to open the image in Photoshop, because that's what it does and then it closes the Camera Raw window.

Making adjustments

Though the goal with making overall adjustments in Camera Raw is to reduce the sheer number of overall adjustments needed in Photoshop, there is still much creative work to do Photoshop is actually where you take the steps to complete the adjusting and editing of your image. The following overview of this process (known as workflow ) summarizes the steps for making quick tonal adjustments and edits to an image Using Bridge, open an image in Camera Raw, make adjustments, and then click the Open button. The image opens in Photoshop. After opening an image in Photoshop from Camera Raw, the file is still in the digital format native to the camera that took the picture for example, NEF for a Nikon digital camera or CRW for a Canon model. Additionally, you don't want to adjust or edit the original file that

Evaluating Images

The first step in processing raw images is to evaluate your image. Chances are, the first time you really view an image other than the thumbnails in Bridge is through the Camera Raw preview. When you first open an image in Camera Raw, Auto Adjustments are automatically applied. (That would explain why your raw images actually look pretty good ) The image shown in Figure 9-2 represents an unprocessed image loaded in Camera Raw with and without Auto Adjustments applied. 1. Open an image in Camera Raw. You can either press Ctrl+U ( +U on a Mac) or click the Camera Raw menu and choose Use Auto Adjustments (see Figure 9-3). 4. Evaluate white balance. Look at the image and evaluate whether or not there is a blue or yellow cast to it. If so, you'll need to adjust the white balance of the image. I often view an image in Bridge, but until I open it in Camera Raw and zoom in, I won't know whether the image is sharp enough for me to even want to proceed

Understanding tone

After you've adjusted the white balance, tint, and saturation of your image's colors in Camera Raw, you can make tonal adjustments to distribute those colors across different parts of the image. You're not changing any color you're changing the way it appears in the light tone, dark tone, and midtone (in-between) areas of the image, as shown in Figure 7-3. Think of tone as not changing color within an image, but how you distribute color across it. When you adjust exposure, shadows, brightness, contrast, and curves in Camera Raw, you are making tonal changes to the image. Tonal adjustments to your images are made by using these controls in Camera Raw and Photoshop i Exposure Worth the price of Photoshop CS2 all by itself, the Camera Raw Exposure control allows you to increase or decrease the actual exposure of an image. Getting a good exposure with your digital camera is important, but it's nice to be able to increase or decrease the amount of exposure digitally. That capability helps...

Doing the evaluation

Before beginning any adjustments in Camera Raw or Photoshop, take these steps to evaluate your image 1. Open the image in Camera Raw. To do that, find the thumbnail in Bridge of the image you want to evaluate, and click it. Then you can choose FileOOpen In Camera Raw or press Ctrl+R ( +R on a Mac). 2. View the image in the Camera Raw window and evaluate white balance. You'll get more proficient at judging white balance of an image with practice. Taking this step for every image you process will get you there quicker. Look for a portion of the image that is supposed to be white. Does that area have a blue or orange yellow tint to it If so, your white balance needs to be adjusted. Color temperature will become more blue when decreased and more orange yellow in cast when increased. If your image has a blue color cast, increase the color temperature in Camera Raw. If the image appears too yellow in cast, decrease the color temperature. Judging whether an image looks too dark or too light...

Using the histogram

Histograms can be very useful when evaluating images, but are an often-overlooked or confusing tool used in Photoshop, Camera Raw, or even on your digital camera. The reason histograms are confusing and overlooked Because nobody ever explains how to use them When I first started using digital cameras, my owner manuals always showed how to view the histogram, but not how to read it. As an avid reader, I also haven't seen a lot written about reading histograms or using them to correct images either. For the most part, a histogram is a chart that shows you the distribution of pixels from the dark areas (indicated on the left side) to the light (on the right side). While you're shooting photos out in the field, your digital camera shows you a histogram on its LCD to indicate the exposure of an image. When you're evaluating and adjusting images in Camera Raw, the histogram shows you how red, green, and blue pixels are distributed in the current image, using colored channels to represent...

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Getting to Know Bridge, Camera Raw, and Photoshop____9 Not all raw files are the Using Camera Becoming familiar with Camera Adjusting images in Camera Taking advantage of raw Loading Photos to Camera Raw and Chapter 8 Getting Acquainted with Camera Raw 127 Looking at Camera Camera Raw Camera Raw Workflow Camera Raw Adjusting white

What's new?

L New Exposure control Photoshop now includes a new control that lets you adjust exposure outside of Camera Raw that can be used for JPEG or TIFF images. I Lens Correction filter The new Lens Correction filter provides the capability to correct lens shortcomings such as barrel distortion and vignetting. Those of you who are familiar with those problems probably feel like cheering. Here's the gist Some lenses at extreme settings create slight darkened borders around an image, called vignetting. Also, you can see visible distortion at extreme zoom settings, especially wide angle.

Foolish Assumptions

This book is intended as a Camera Raw and Photoshop CS2 reference for those digital photographers who want to develop efficient workflows for processing raw images, organizing files, and making corrections and edits in Photoshop. If you have an advanced digital camera or digital SLR that can capture images in raw format, a computer (with a lot of memory and storage space ), Photoshop CS2, and even a photo-quality printer, you probably have all you need to get started i Digital SLR or advanced compact digital camera For digital photographers who want to shoot in raw format, having a digital camera that can produce raw files is a pretty good idea. Most of the newer (and more advanced) compact digital cameras and to my knowledge, all recent-model digital SLRs offer the raw format. If your digital camera is a brand-spanking-new model (if so, congratulations ), it may take Adobe a few months to come out with an update to Camera Raw that includes your new model. One thing is certain You're...

Moving Boy Over

It's difficult to get your models to stand exactly where you want them. The most frequent error amateur photographers make in group shots like this is to fail to have the subjects standing close enough together. Even seasoned pros can fall victim, especially when the subjects include a lively quartet of second-graders in which one or more of the boys doesn't especially want to touch one of the girls. Luckily, Photoshop makes it easy to move our subjects closer together, as I did in this case.

Transferring Skills

Whether you acquired your photographic skills working with film cameras, or entirely from shooting digital pictures, they can be transferred to Photoshop in a variety of ways, as befits the multifaceted nature of photography itself. Photography has always been part art, part craft, and part technology. Some of the earliest photographers were originally trained as artists, and used their cameras to produce landscapes, portraits, and other works from a classical artistic perspective. Modest skills as an artisan were also helpful, for many of the earliest cameras were hand built by the photographers themselves. Even as mass produced cameras became available, photographers continued to craft their own custom-built devices and accessories. Today, you'll still find that some of the coolest gadgets for photography are home-brewed contraptions. (You'll find a few of them as special projects in my book Mastering Digital Photography, from Course Technology.) Early photographers also had to be...

Color Infrared Film

First you need a digital infrared image to work with. This is an image editing book and not a photography techniques tome, so I'll provide only the basics. You can find more complete discussions of how to take infrared photos in my books Mastering Digital Photography and Mastering Digital SLR Photography. To take the original photo, you'll need a camera that can see infrared (take a picture of your TV remote control in action to see if a dot shows up from the sending end), and a filter that blocks visible light and passes infrared, such as the Hoya R72. Mount your camera on a tripod, because infrared photos may need exposures well below 1 30th second, and venturing into the multi-second range (that makes non-moving landscape subjects your best bet). You'll also want to set the white balance control of your digital camera manually, preferably using an expanse of grass as your neutral. With any luck, you'll end up with an infrared photo like the one shown in Figure 3.39.


Our sample picture was taken with a digital camera and doesn't have dust spots. It does have some white spots that were possibly caused by some bad pixels in the sensor. If the spots had been gray or black and we were using a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, it's likely that they were caused by dust on the sensor. Usually, you can blow off this dust to avoid leaving dark spots on every digital photo you take. (Sensor cleaning can be tricky you can find more information on this topic in my book Mastering Digital SLR Photography, from Course Technology.)

1. Plan your edits.

Dust spots on digital images aren't really possible for images taken with compact digital cameras because the lens is built into the camera. But when you're shooting with digital SLRs, dust spots can happen when particles find their way onto your image sensor. It's happened to me, and is fairly common for digital SLR shooters.

No Perfect Lens

As you probably know, there are no perfect lenses. Even the most sophisticated lens design, developed for costly ( 8000 or more ) interchangeable lenses for digital and film SLRs are, at best, compromises of some sort. Lens designers depart from the theoretical perfect lens design to add features that photographers demand. Perhaps the lens is intended for low-light photography, so the designer makes a trade-off here or there to allow a wider maximum aperture. Or, the lens must be developed so it is physically shorter, lighter, or can be attached to an SLR camera without interfering with the mirror. Some lenses are designed so they can better work with ultraviolet illumination for scientific purposes, or optimized for close-up photography. The most challenging lens design of all may be the zoom lens, which with a continuous series of focal lengths, is many lenses in one. There are lots of tricks optical magicians can work with, including non-spherical lens surfaces, special coatings,...

Reducing vignetting

Vignetting occurs when the outer edges of the image aren't properly exposed, often leaving a dark circular edge around an image. Vignetting will often occur when you shoot images with your lens set to a wide-open aperture setting. Using a lens hood can also affect an image where the lens actually captures the outer edges of the attachment. The Vignetting Amount slider is an easy way to eliminate this condition. The photo shown in Figure 9-25 shows vignetting that occurred when this landscape was shot with a wide-angle lens. Though the Vignetting and Midpoint controls were designed to reduce vignetting effects, I'll often take them the opposite direction and not just to be contrary. For years, portrait photographers have used vignetting as a portrait effect here I can do that digitally Adding a dark, graduated border around a portrait can have a pleasing effect on the total image, drawing attention to the area of the photo that is most important the person you've photographed.


The original was a full-frame digital image taken with a digital camera with a mere 3.3 megapixels. I zoomed in as far as I could with the 4X zoom lens, loaded the resulting image into Photoshop, and applied Photoshop's Filter Sharpen Unsharp Mask filter, which lets you dial in the amount of sharpness you want, using the dialog box shown in Figure 2.24.

Vignetting Revisited

Vignetting, in which the corners and edges of an image are significantly darker than the center, can be produced in a number of ways outside the darkroom. A lens hood that is too small for the field of view of the lens it is used with can produce a vignette effect unintentionally. The same thing can happen if your lens doesn't fully cover the image area. The photographer can shoot through a hole or other aperture to create a vignette, too. Or, you can dodge the image while it's being printed to achieve the same end. Photoshop is as good an option as any, and better than most, especially if you want a fine degree of control over your vignettes.

Removing spots

You may think that with today's digital cameras, dust spots are a thing of the past. That's not necessarily so. Digital SLRs use interchangeable lenses when you change these lenses, dust can sneak into the camera and onto the image sensor and you have digital dust spots. Fortunately, the Spot Healing Brush tool offers a digital remedy.

Why This Book?

There are dozens, if not a hundred or more books on how to use Photoshop. There are already three dozen books on digital photography, and hundreds more on conventional photography. Yet, oddly enough, only a half dozen of these combine Photoshop and photography in any meaningful way. One or two are written for professional photographers and contain little that the average picture taker can use or understand. A few more are dumbed-down, include lots of pretty pictures, but not much text on each page, and contain techniques that you'll outgrow quickly. Others are weird hybrids that tell you more than you wanted to know about camera technology, CCD, CMOS, and CIS image sensors, how cameras work, the history of digital photography, and less than you wanted to know about image editing. I suspect you don't need any convincing that photography is a great idea, and you don't need detailed comparisons of Photoshop with the other image editors on the market. Instead, you want to know how...

Color Correction

With traditional photography, color correction is achieved in several ways. You can put filters over the lens of your camera to compensate for a slight bluish or reddish tint to the available light. Other filters can correct for the wacky lighting effects provided by some fluorescent lamps. Some color correction can be done when making a print. Digital cameras can even do a bit of color correction internally, using the white balance settings. Yet Photoshop has an advantage over most traditional methods it's fast, repeatable, and reversible. You can fiddle with your image editor's capabilities as much as you like, produce several corrected versions for comparison, or really dial up some outlandish color changes as special effects. If you don't like what you come up with, return to your original image and start over.

Sharpening things up

(flNG The quality you get when you sharpen an image depends on its final size. If you sharpen an image before you resize it, you could do more damage than good, winding up with an extremely oversharpened appearance in the final output version. If you use the Sharpness control in Camera Raw, use it only temporarily to add sharpness to preview images. Here's how to set Camera Raw's Sharpness control to sharpen preview images only click the Camera Raw Menu button and click the Camera Raw Menu button and 1. Open Camera Raw Preferences. In the Camera Raw Preferences window (shown in Figure 9-21), choose Preview Images Only from the Apply Sharpening To drop-down list. When you make this selection, Camera Raw applies sharpening to preview images only.

Fisheye Lens

Fisheye lenses were originally developed as a way to provide a hemispherical view in unreasonably tight places, generally for technical reasons, such as examining the insides of a boiler, or for photographing things like the sky's canopy for astronomical research. Because of their specialized nature, they tended to cost a fortune to buy, but that didn't stop photographers of the 1960s who were looking for a way to come up with novel images. My own first fisheye lens was a second-generation Nikon optic, an improved 7.5mm lens that replaced the original 8mm Nikon fisheye, and which required locking up the single lens reflex's mirror and using a separate viewfinder. I later got Nikon's 16mm full frame fisheye lens, which did not produce a circular image like the original. Today, fisheye lenses are available as prime lenses for conventional cameras, or as attachments for many digital cameras, but they're still not something you'd want to use everyday. So, you might want to try Photoshop's...

Lens Flare

Thisdocumentiscreatedwithtrial versionofCHM2PDF Pilot2.16.100. your lens' glass, thus improving contrast and making your images appear sharper and snappier. Some kinds of lenses are more susceptible to lens flare than others. Telephoto lenses have a narrow field of view, and light from outside that view can be objectionable. That's why telephotos virtually always are furnished with a lens hood, usually one custom-designed to precisely exclude illumination from outside the intended perspective of the lens. There is less you can do with normal and wide-angle lenses, as their much wider field of view automatically takes in every stray light source. However, lens hoods are a good idea for these lenses, as well. Even my ultra-wide 16mm fisheye has stubby fingers of a vestigial lens hood mounted on its outer edge. The design of a lens also is a factor. Zoom lenses or any lens with many, many elements, as well as lenses with very large front surfaces are virtual magnets for image-obscuring...

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