With traditional photography, color correction is achieved in several ways. You can put filters over the lens of your camera to compensate for a slight bluish or reddish tint to the available light. Other filters can correct for the wacky lighting effects provided by some fluorescent lamps. Some color correction can be done when making a print. Digital cameras can even do a bit of color correction internally, using the white balance settings. Yet Photoshop has an advantage over most traditional methods: it's fast, repeatable, and reversible. You can fiddle with your image editor's capabilities as much as you like, produce several corrected versions for comparison, or really dial up some outlandish color changes as special effects. If you don't like what you come up with, return to your original image and start over.
Photoshop CS has a Match Color feature that you can use to match color schemes from one shot to the other when consistency is important, as in commercial or fashion photography. In conventional film photography it's common to restrict a series of photos to a single "batch" of film having the same emulsion number to provide this consistency. Now you can offer this kind of color correction with digital photos or film photos taken with varying types of film, even under different lighting conditions, usually providing a great improvement over the color correction possible in-camera.
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