The advantage photographers have is that they've seen all these techniques before, and have probably used them. The ability to reproduce every one of these effects within Photoshop is a powerful additional tool. In truth, Figure 1.2 never saw a piece of film. It was taken with a digital camera using the "normal" (nontelephoto/non-wide-angle) zoom setting, cropped tightly in Photoshop to simulate a telephoto picture, and then a "sun" was added and flag colors were manipulated to create the image you see here.
Don't panic if your photographic interests don't run to camera techniques or darkroom magic. Even if your photography skills emphasize other worthy areas of expertise, such as composition or the mechanics of camera operation, you'll still find Photoshop a comfortable fit with what you already know, and a great tool for applying what you plan to learn in the future. From its earliest beginnings, Photoshop was modeled on photographic concepts. Many features incorporated into the latest version of Photoshop have their roots in photography, such as the new Lens Blur effect, seamless panorama photos with PhotoMerge, and the Photo Filter Effects plug-in that mimics standard photographic filters.
Like photography itself, Photoshop was born in a darkroom. Thomas and John Knoll, sons of an Ann Arbor, Michigan college professor, worked in their photoenthusiast father's basement darkroom and grew to love the Apple computer he brought home for research projects.
By the mid 1980s, Thomas and John were working with imaging on a professional basis. Thomas was doing Ph.D. work in digital image processing, and John was approaching a career at Industrial Light and Magic, the motion-picture computer graphics firm in California. One big problem the brothers saw, was that the most advanced graphics-oriented consumer and business personal computer of the timethe Macintoshcouldn't manipulate full-color images properly.
They set out to fix that. The product that was to become Photoshop went through various early incarnations under different names, and a few copies of an application by that name were actually distributed by a company called BarneyScan Corporation with their slide scanner. Finally, the Knolls licensed their product to Adobe Systems, Inc., then known primarily for its PostScript and font technology, and a drawing program called Adobe Illustrator. Photoshop 1.0 was released to the world in January, 1990.
You can see the original tool palette of Photoshop 1.0 along side its Photoshop CS counterpart in Figure 1.3. Although the icons have been moved around or combined (and the latest Mac OS has added a 3D look), it's amazing how little has changed. The 24 tools in the original palette are all still in use today. Nine of the tools have been nested together under five multi-purpose icons, the Airbrush has become a checkbox on the Options toolbar, and a few, such as the Type and Brush tools, have been transmogrified so much they have little in common with their ancestors.
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