Color gamuts (Photoshop)

A gamut is the range of colors that a color system can display or print. The spectrum of colors seen by the human eye is wider than the gamut available in any color model. Among the color models used in Photoshop, L*a*b has the largest gamut, encompassing all colors in the RGB and CMYK gamuts. Typically, RGB gamuts contain the subset of these colors that can be viewed on a computer or television monitor (which emits red, green, and blue light). Therefore, some colors, such as pure cyan or pure...

Specifying 8-bit color display (Photoshop)

When you're working with a display system that supports 8-bit color, the monitor displays only 256 different colors at a time. As a result, Adobe Photoshop uses a technique called dithering to mix pixels of available colors and thus simulate colors not currently available. Note Most monitors are capable of displaying 24-bit color. To achieve the best results, avoid using 8-bit display mode when editing color images. By default, Adobe Photoshop uses pattern dithering, which can result in a...

Selecting an image map type (Image Ready)

ImageReady can create client-side and server-side image maps. In client-side image maps, the links are interpreted by the browser itself. In server-side image maps, the links are interpreted by the server. Because client-side image maps don't need to contact the server to function, they are often significantly faster to navigate. By default, ImageReady saves image maps as client-side image maps. Important Server-side image maps do not work in images that have multiple slices. You select an...

Creating temporary masks in Quick Mask mode (Photoshop)

Quick Mask mode lets you edit any selection as a mask without using the Channels palette and while viewing your image. The advantage of editing your selection as a mask is that you can use almost any Photoshop tool or filter to modify the mask. For example, if you create a rectangular selection with the marquee tool, you can enter Quick Mask mode and use the paintbrush to extend or contract the selection, or you can use a filter to distort the edges of the selection. You can also use selection...

Using the Automate commands (Photoshop)

The Automate commands simplify complex tasks by combining them into one or more dialog boxes. Photoshop includes the following commands (third-party companies may provide additional commands) Conditional Mode Change changes the color mode of an image to the mode you specify, based on the original mode of the image. Record this command in an action to ensure that images use the correct color mode and avoid generating unwanted error messages. Contact Sheet produces a series of thumbnail previews...

Painting with a state or snapshot of an image (Photoshop)

The history brush tool lets you paint a copy of one state or snapshot of an image into the current image window. This tool makes a copy, or sample, of the image and then paints with it. For example, you might make a snapshot of a change you made with a painting tool or filter. After undoing the change to the image, you could use the history brush tool to apply the change selectively to areas of the image. Unless you select a merged snapshot, the history brush tool paints from a layer in the...

Using Help | Contents | Index

Select Transparency Shapes Layers to restrict layer effects and knockouts to opaque areas of the layer. Deselecting this option, which is always selected by default, applies these effects throughout the layer. Select Layer Mask Hides Effects to restrict layer effects to the area defined by the layer mask. Select Vector Mask Hides Effects to restrict layer effects to the area defined by the vector mask.

To save a file in Photoshop DCS format:

1 Save the artwork, and choose Photoshop DCS 1.0, or Photoshop DCS 2.0 from the Format menu. (See Saving files on page 446.) 2 In the DCS Format dialog box, select the options you want, and click OK. The dialog box includes all the options available for Photoshop EPS files. For more information, see Saving files in Photoshop EPS format (Photoshop) on page 448. Additionally, the DCS menu gives you the option of creating a 72-ppi composite file that can be placed in a page layout application or...

Creating custom styles

You can create custom style using one or more of the following effects Drop Shadow Adds a shadow that falls behind the contents on the layer. Inner Shadow Adds a shadow that falls just inside the edges of the layer's content, giving the layer a recessed appearance. Outer Glow and Inner Glow Add glows that emanate from the outside or inside edges of the layer's content. Bevel and Emboss Adds various combinations of highlights and shadows to a layer. Satin Applies shading to the interior of a...

To save a file in Photoshop EPS format:

1 Save the artwork, and choose Photoshop EPS from the Format menu. (See Saving files on page 446.) 2 In the EPS Options dialog box, select the options you want, and click OK Preview Creates a low-resolution image to view in the destination application. Choose TIFF to share an EPS file between Windows and Mac OS systems. An 8-bit preview delivers better display quality but larger file size than a 1-bit preview. Note To use the JPEG preview option in Mac OS, you must have QuickTime installed....

Using tokens in Web photo gallery styles

Photoshop features tokens in the HTML template files that are used to define a default Web photo gallery style. The tokens enable Photoshop to generate a gallery based on user input in the Web Photo Gallery dialog box. When customizing or creating a gallery style, you can add any token to any HTML template file, with the exception of THUMBNAILS and THUMBNAILSROWS , which can only appear in the IndexPage.htm file. When adding a token, keep in mind that you may also need to add HTML code to the...

To display file information in the document window (Photoshop):

1 Click the triangle in the bottom border of the application window (Windows) or document window (Mac OS). Illustration of file information view options in Photoshop Document Size to display information on the amount of data in the image. The number on the left represents the printing size of the image approximately the size of the saved, flattened file in Adobe Photoshop format. The number on the right indicates the file's approximate size including layers and channels. Document Profile to...

Adding spot colors (Photoshop)

Spot colors are special premixed inks used instead of, or in addition to, the process color (CMYK) inks. Each spot color requires its own plate on the press. (Because a varnish requires a separate plate, it is considered a spot color, too.) For information on printing spot color plates, see Printing color separations on page 483. If you are planning to print an image with spot colors, you need to create spot channels to store the colors. To export spot channels, save the file in DCS 2.0 format...

Identifying out-of-gamut colors (Photoshop)

The gamut is the range of colors that a color system can display or print. A color that can be displayed in RGB or HSB models may be out-of-gamut, and therefore unprintable, for your CMYK setting. (See Color gamuts (Photoshop) on page 91.) Photoshop automatically brings all colors into gamut when you convert an image to CMYK. But you might want to identify the out-of-gamut colors in an image or correct them manually before converting to CMYK. In RGB mode, you can identify out-of-gamut colors in...

Annotating images (Photoshop)

You can attach note annotations (notes) and audio annotations to an image in Photoshop. This is useful for associating review comments, production notes, or other information with the image. Because Photoshop annotations are compatible with Adobe Acrobat, you can use them to exchange information with Acrobat users as well as Photoshop users. To circulate a Photoshop document for review in Acrobat, save the document in Portable Document Format (PDF) and ask reviewers to use Acrobat to add notes...

Transforming perspective while cropping (Photoshop)

The crop tool in Photoshop has an additional option that allows you to transform the perspective in an image. This is very useful when working with images that contain keystone distortion. Keystone distortion occurs when an object is photographed from an angle rather than from a straight-on view. For example, if you take a picture of a a tall building from ground level, the edges of the building appear closer at the top than they do at the bottom. Note You cannot transform the perspective of...

To save a file in TIFF format (Photoshop):

1 Save the artwork, and choose TIFF from the Format menu. (See Saving files on page 446.) 2 In the TIFF Options dialog box, select the options you want, and click OK. Image Compression Specifies a method for compressing the composite image data. (See About file compression on page 453.) Byte Order Photoshop and most recent applications can read files using either byte order. However, if you don't know what kind of program the file may be opened in, select the platform on which the file will be...

Modifying layer effects with contours (Photoshop)

You can use contours to shape the appearance of an effect over a given range in the Drop Shadow, Inner Shadow, Inner Glow, Outer Glow, Bevel and Emboss, and Satin effects when creating custom layer styles. For example, a Linear contour on a Drop Shadow causes the opacity to drop off in a linear transition while a Custom contour can be used to create a unique shadow transition. Custom contours created in Photoshop can be used in ImageReady. You can select, reset, delete, or change the preview of...

Creating an ICC monitor profile

Your monitor will display color more reliably if you use color management and accurate ICC profiles. Using an ICC monitor profile helps you eliminate any color cast in your monitor, make your monitor grays as neutral as possible, and standardize image display across different monitors. On Windows, you can use the Adobe Gamma software installed with Photoshop to create a monitor profile. On Mac OS, you can use the Apple calibration utility to create a monitor profile. In addition, there are...

Toolbox overview (1 of 3)

Make rectangular, elliptical, single row, and single column selections. make rectangular, elliptical, single row, and single column selections. freehand, polygonal straight-edged , and magnetic snap-to selections. The move tool moves The lasso tools make The slice selection tool selects slices. The slice selection tool selects slices. The healing brush tool paints with a sample or pattern to repairs imperfections in a image. The healing brush tool paints with a sample or pattern to repairs...

To create a temporary mask:

1 Using any selection tool, select the part of the image you want to change. 2 Click the Quick Mask mode button in the toolbox. Selected area, and Quick Mask mode applied Selected area, and Quick Mask mode applied A color overlay similar to a rubylith covers and protects the area outside the selection. The original selection is left unprotected by this mask. By default, Quick Mask mode colors the protected area using a red, 50 opaque overlay. 3 To edit the mask, select a painting or editing...

Using variables

You use variables to define which elements in a template are dynamic changeable . A variable's type corresponds to the type of data you want to change in a template. Visibility variables let you show or hide the content of a layer. Pixel Replacement variables let you replace the pixels in the layer with pixels from another image file. Text Replacement variables let you replace a string of text in a type layer. Two versions of a Web image based on the same template A. Visibility variable B....

To free memory used by the Undo command, the History palette, or the Clipboard (Photoshop):

Choose Edit gt Purge, and choose the item type or buffer you want to clear. If already empty, the item type or buffer is dimmed. Important The Purge command permanently clears from memory the operation stored by the command or buffer it cannot be undone. For example, choosing Edit gt Purge gt Histories deletes all history states from the History palette. Use the Purge command when the amount of information held in memory is so large that Photoshop's performance is noticeably diminished.

To clean up stray pixels left inside or outside a color-based selection:

1 Choose Select gt Modify gt Smooth. 2 For Sample Radius, enter a pixel value between 1 and 100, and click OK. Photoshop or ImageReady checks around each selected pixel to find any unselected pixels falling within the specified range. For example, if you enter 16 for the sample radius, the program uses each pixel as the center of a 33-by-33-pixel area 16 pixels in the horizontal and vertical directions . If most pixels in the range are selected, any unselected pixels are added to the selection....

To use the Trace Contour filter:

1 Choose Filter gt Stylize gt Trace Contour. 2 Choose an Edge option to outline areas in the selection Lower outlines where the color values of pixels fall below the specified level, and Upper outlines where the color values fall above. 3 Enter a threshold Level for evaluating color values tonal level , from 0 to 255. Experiment to see what values bring out the best detail in the image. Use the Info palette in Grayscale mode to identify a color value that you want traced. Then enter the value...

Distort filters

The Distort filters geometrically distort an image, creating 3D or other reshaping effects. Note that these filters can be very memory intensive. Diffuse Glow Renders an image as though it were viewed through a soft diffusion filter. The filter adds see-through white noise to an image, with the glow fading from the center of a selection. Displace filter Uses an image, called a displacement map, to determine how to distort a selection. For example, using a parabola-shaped displacement map, you...

To use a preset pattern from the Post Script Patterns folder:

Each preset file in the PostScript Patterns folder which comes with Photoshop contains a single pattern in the Adobe Illustrator format. You can scale and render these patterns at any resolution. 2 Select the pattern file you want to use, and click Open. 3 Select any rasterizing options. See Opening and importing images on page 73. 4 Make a rectangular selection around the pattern, or make no selection to use the whole image. 5 Choose Edit gt Define Pattern. 6 Photoshop...

To apply an underline or strikethrough:

Click the Underline button in the Character palette to apply an underline beneath horizontal type. Choose Underline Left or Underline Right from the Character palette menu to apply an underline to the left or right of vertical type. You can apply an underline to the left or right, but not to both sides. A check mark indicates that an option is selected. Note The Underline Left and Underline Right options only appear in the Character palette menu when a type layer that contains vertical type is...

To enable or disable snapping:

A check mark indicates that snapping is enabled. To specify what to snap to Choose View gt Snap To, and choose one or more options from the submenu Guides to snap to guides. See Using guides and the grid on page 45. Photoshop Grid to snap to the grid. You cannot select this option when the grid is hidden. See Using guides and the grid on page 45. Slices to snap to slice boundaries. You cannot select this option when slices are hidden. See Viewing slices on page 371....

To colorize a grayscale image or create a monotone effect:

1 Photoshop If you are colorizing a grayscale image, choose Image gt Mode gt RGB Color to convert the image to RGB. 2 Open the Hue Saturation dialog box. See Making color adjustments on page 132. 3 Select Colorize. The image is converted to the hue of the current foreground color, if the foreground color is not black or white. The lightness value of each pixel does not change. 4 Use the Hue slider to select a new color if desired. Use the Saturation and Lightness sliders to adjust the...

To change the rubylith display for a layer mask (Photoshop):

Alt-click Windows or Option-click Mac OS the layer mask thumbnail to select the layer mask channel then double-click the layer mask thumbnail. Double-click the layer mask channel in the Channels palette. 2 To choose a new mask color, in the Layer Mask Display Options dialog box, click the color swatch, and choose a new color. See Using the Adobe Color Picker on page 261. 3 To change the opacity, enter a value between 0 and 100 . Both the color and opacity settings affect only the appearance of...

To use masks to modify color reduction:

1 In the Optimize panel palette, choose a GIF or PNG-8 setting from the Settings menu, or choose GIF or PNG-8 from the file format menu. 2 Choose a color reduction algorithm and specify the maximum number of colors. 3 Click the mask button J to the right of the Color Reduction Algorithm pop-up menu. All Text Layers to use the masks from all text layers in the image. All Vector Shape Layers to use the masks from all shape layers in the image. Channel to choose an alpha channel from the menu. In...

To embed a watermark:

1 Open the image that you want to watermark. You can embed only one watermark per image. The Embed Watermark filter won't work on an image that has been previously marked. If you're working with a layered image, you should flatten the image before marking it otherwise, the watermark will affect the active layer only. Note You can add a watermark to an indexed-color image by first converting the image to RGB mode, embedding the watermark, and then converting the image back to indexed-color mode....

To select a color reduction algorithm:

Choose an option from the Color Reduction Algorithm pop-up menu below the file format menu in the Optimize panel palette Perceptual Creates a custom color table by giving priority to colors for which the human eye has greater sensitivity. Selective Creates a color table similar to the Perceptual color table, but favoring broad areas of color and the preservation of Web colors. This color table usually produces images with the greatest color integrity. Selective is the default option. Adaptive...

Using the signal strength meter

The signal strength meter helps you determine whether a watermark is durable enough to survive the intended use of the image. The signal strength meter is available only for images containing watermarks that you yourself have embedded. Digimarc recommends that you check the signal strength meter before publishing your images. For example, if you often compress watermarked images for inclusion in a Web site, check the meter before posting the images. You can also use the signal strength meter to...

Using fractional character widths

By default, type is displayed using fractional character widths. This means that the spacing between characters varies, with fractions of whole pixels between some characters. In most situations, fractional character widths provide the best spacing for type appearance and readability. However, for type in small sizes less than 20 points displayed online, fractional character widths can cause type to run together or have too much extra space, making it difficult to read. You can turn off...

Object linking and embedding (OLE) (Windows only)

Photoshop is an OLE 2.0 server, which means it supports embedding or linking an image in an OLE container application usually a word-processor or page-layout program . For example, you can insert Photoshop files and selections into other OLE applications such as Adobe PageMaker and Microsoft Word using copy and paste or other methods. Linking lets you place a link in the OLE container file that refers to the Photoshop file on the hard drive. Embedding lets you insert the Photoshop file into the...

To move a straight segment:

1 Select the direct selection tool gt , and select the segment you want to adjust. To adjust the angle or length of the segment, select an anchor point. 2 Drag the selected segment to its new position. To move a curved segment 1 Select the direct selection tool gt , and select the points or segments you want to move. Be sure to select both points anchoring the segment. 2 Drag the selected anchor points or segments to new positions. Hold down Shift as you drag to constrain the movement to...

Using image clipping paths to create transparency

You may want to use only part of a Photoshop image when printing it or placing it in another application. For example, you may want to use a foreground object and exclude the background. An image clipping path lets you isolate the foreground object and make everything else transparent when the image is printed or placed in another application. Image imported into Illustrator without image clipping path, and with image clipping path To save a path as an image clipping path 1 Draw a work path...

To duplicate a slice:

In ImageReady, you can select multiple slices. Then Alt-drag Windows or Option-drag Mac OS from inside the selection. In ImageReady, you can also choose Slices gt Duplicate Slice s or Duplicate Slice s from the Slice palette menu. ImageReady Select a slice in the Rollovers palette, and choose Duplicate Slice from the palette menu. See Using the Rollovers palette on page 398. The duplicate slice appears on top of the original offset 10 pixels down and to the right and can be...

To set justification options:

1 Choose Justification from the Paragraph palette menu. 2 Enter values for Word Spacing, Letter Spacing, and Glyph Spacing For justified type only, enter values for Minimum and Maximum to define a range of acceptable spacing. Enter a value for Desired to set the spacing for both justified and unjustified paragraphs. Word Spacing values can range from 0 to 1000 at 100 , no additional space is added between words. Letter Spacing values can range from -100 to 500 at 0 , no space is added between...

To read a Digimarc watermark:

1 Choose Filter gt Digimarc gt Read Watermark. If the filter finds a watermark, a dialog box displays the Creator ID, copyright year if present , and image attributes. 2 Click OK, or for more information, choose from the following If you have a Web browser installed, click Web Lookup to get more information about the owner of the image. This option launches the browser and displays the Digimarc Web site, where contact details appear for the given Creator ID. Call the phone number listed in the...

About masks and weighted optimization

Photoshop and ImageReady automatically generate masks when you create a type layer or a shape layer. You can also manually create masks and store them in alpha channels. When you use a mask to apply optimization settings, the white areas of the mask describe the highest level of image quality, while the black areas for the mask describe the lowest level of image quality. The level of optimization in gray areas of the mask decreases by a linear scale. Weighted optimization is available for...

To crop an image using the Trim command:

2 In the Trim dialog box, select an option Transparent Pixels to trim away transparency at the edges of the image, leaving the smallest image containing non-transparent pixels. Top Left Pixel Color to remove an area the color of the upper left pixel from the image. Bottom Right Pixel Color to remove an area the color of the lower right pixel from the image. 3 Select one or more areas of the image to trim away Top, Bottom, Left, or Right.