To use the Displace filter:

1 Choose Filter > Distort > Displace.

2 Enter the scale for the magnitude of the displacement.

When the horizontal and vertical scale are set to 100%, the greatest displacement is 128 pixels (because middle gray produces no displacement).

3 If the displacement map is not the same size as the selection, choose how the map will fit the image—Stretch to Fit to resize the map, or Tile to fill the selection by repeating the map in a pattern.

4 Choose Wrap Around or Repeat Edge Pixels to determine how undistorted areas of the image will be treated. (See "Defining undistorted areas" on page 323.)

5 Click OK.

6 Select and open the displacement map. The distortion is applied to the image.

The Displace filter shifts a selection using a color value from the displacement map— 0 is the maximum negative shift, 255 the maximum positive shift, and a gray value of 128 produces no displacement. If a map has one channel, the image shifts along a diagonal defined by the horizontal and vertical scale ratios. If the map has more than one channel, the first channel controls the horizontal displacement and the second channel controls the vertical displacement.

Glass Makes an image appear as if it is being viewed through different types of glass.You can choose a glass effect or create your own glass surface as a Photoshop file and apply it. You can adjust scaling, distortion, and smoothness settings. When using surface controls with a file, follow the instructions for the Displace filter. For more information about Glass filter controls, see "Using texture and glass surface controls" on page 323.

Ocean Ripple Adds randomly spaced ripples to the image's surface, making the image look as if it were under water.

Pinch Squeezes a selection. A positive value up to 100% shifts a selection toward its center; a negative value up to -100% shifts a selection outward.

Polar Coordinates Converts a selection from its rectangular to polar coordinates, and vice versa, according to a selected option. You can use this filter to create a cylinder anamorphosis—art popular in the 18th century—in which the distorted image appears normal when viewed in a mirrored cylinder.

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