• If you are transforming a vector shape or path, select the path selection tool t. Then select Show Bounding Box in the options bar.
3 Do one or more of the following:
• To scale by dragging, drag a handle. Press Shift as you drag a corner handle to scale proportionately.
• To scale numerically, enter percentages in the W and H text boxes in the options bar. In Photoshop, click the link button j; to maintain the aspect ratio.
• To rotate by dragging, move the pointer outside of the bounding border (it becomes a curved, two-sided arrow ^), and then drag. Press Shift to constrain the rotation to 15° increments.
• To rotate numerically, enter degrees in the rotation text box in the options bar.
• To distort relative to the center point of the bounding border, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and drag a handle \.
• To distort freely, press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and drag a handle.
• To skew, press Ctrl+Shift (Windows) or Command+Shift (Mac OS), and drag a side handle. When positioned over a side handle, the pointer becomes a white arrowhead with a small double arrow
• To skew numerically, enter degrees in the H (horizontal skew) and V (vertical skew) text boxes in the options bar.
• To apply perspective, press Ctrl+Alt+Shift (Windows) or Command+Option+Shift (Mac OS), and drag a corner handle. When positioned over a corner handle, the pointer becomes a gray arrowhead K
• To change the reference point, click a square on the reference point locator S in the options bar. (See "Setting the reference point" on page 182.)
• To move an item, enter values for the new location of the reference in the X (horizontal position) and Y (vertical position) text boxes in the options bar. In Photoshop, click the Relative Positioning button _ to specify the new position in relation to the current position.
To undo the last handle adjustment, choose Edit > Undo.
4 Do one of the following:
• Press Enter (Windows) or Return (Mac OS); click the Commit button y in the options bar; or double-click inside the transformation marquee.
• To cancel the transformation, press Esc or click the Cancel button ^ in the options bar.
When transforming a bitmap image (versus a shape or path), it becomes slightly less sharp each time you commit a transformation; therefore, performing multiple commands before applying the cumulative transformation is preferable to applying each transformation separately.
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