3 In the toolbox, select the healing brush tool
4 In the tool options bar, click the Brush option arrow to open the pop-up palette of controls, and drag the slider or type to enter a Diameter value of 10 px. Then, close the pop-up palette and make sure that the other settings in the tool options bar are set to the default values: Normal in the Mode option, Sampled in the Source option, and the Aligned check box deselected.
5 Hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and click a short distance above the scratched-in graffiti in the image to sample that part of the rock. Release the Alt/Option key.
6 Starting above the graffiti "D," paint straight down over the top part of the letter, using a short stroke.
Notice that as you paint, the area the brush covers temporarily looks as if it isn't making a good color match with the underlying image. However, when you release the mouse button, the brush stroke blends in nicely with the rest of the rock surface.
7 Continue using short strokes to paint over the graffiti, starting at the top and moving down until you can no longer detect the graffiti letters.
When you finish removing the graffiti, look closely at the surface of the rock, and notice that even the subtle striations in the rock appear to be fully restored and natural in the image.
8 Zoom out to 100%, and choose File > Save. About snapshots and History palette states
When you do retouching work, it can be easy to over-edit images until they no longer look realistic. One of the safeguards you can take to save intermediate stages of your work is to take Photoshop snapshots of the image at various points in your progress.
The History palette automatically records the steps you take when you work on a Photoshop file. You can use the History palette states like a multiple Undo command to restore the image to previous stages in your work. For example, to undo the most recent six steps, simply click the sixth step above the current state in the History palette. To return to the latest state, scroll back down the History palette and select the state in the lowest position on the list.
The number of steps saved in the History palette is determined by a Preferences setting. The default specifies that only the 20 most recent steps are recorded. As you perform additional steps, the earliest states are lost as the latest ones are added to the History palette.
When you select an earlier step in the History palette, the image window reverts to the condition it had at that phase. All the subsequent steps are still listed below it in the palette. However, if you select an earlier state in your work and then make a new change, all the states that appeared after the selected state are lost, replaced by the new state.
Note: The following technique is not recommended when you work with large or complex images, such as ones with many layers, because this can slow down performance. Saving many previous states and snapshots is RAM-intensive. If you work frequently with complicated images that require maximum RAM, you should consider reducing the number of history states saved by changing that setting in your Photoshop Preferences.
Snapshots give you an opportunity to try out different techniques and then choose among them. Typically, you might take a snapshot at a stage of the work that you are confident that you want to keep, at least as a base point. Then, you could try out various techniques until you reached a possible completed phase. If you take another snapshot at that phase, it will be saved for the duration of the current work session on that file. Then, you can revert to the first snapshot and try out different techniques and ideas for finishing the image. When that is finalized, you could take a third snapshot, revert to the first snapshot, and try again.
When you finish experimenting, you could scroll to the top of the History palette to where the snapshots are listed. Then, you can select each of the final snapshots in turn and compare the results.
Once you identify the one you like best, you could select it, save your file, and close it. At that time, your snapshots and History palette steps would be permanently lost.
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Adobe Photoshop can be a complex tool only because you can do so much with it, however for in this video series, we're going to keep it as simple as possible. In fact, in this video you'll see an overview of the few tools and Adobe Photoshop features we will use. When you see this video, you'll see how you can do so much with so few features, but you'll learn how to use them in depth in the future videos.