Flattening an Image

After you make all the necessary modifications to your image, you can greatly reduce the file size by flattening the image. Flattening merges all visible layers into a single Background layer and discards all hidden layers. Make sure that all layers that you want to display are visible before you flatten the image. Because flattening removes an image's individual layers, it's a good idea to make a copy of the original image before it is flattened. The status bar displays the file's current size and the size it will be when flattened. If you work on a Macintosh, you'll find this information in the lower-left corner of the document window.

FIGURE 16

Layer group

Right-pointing triangle indicates collapsed layer group

Down-pointing triangle indicates expanded layer group

Different colors used within a layer group

FIGURE 16

Layer group

Right-pointing triangle indicates collapsed layer group

Down-pointing triangle indicates expanded layer group

Different colors used within a layer group

Layer group icon

Individual layers in layer group

Layer group icon

Individual layers in layer group

Understanding Layer Comps

The ability to create a layer comp, a variation on the arrangement and visibility of existing layers, is a powerful tool that can make your work more organized. You can create a layer comp by clicking the Layer Comps tab on the palette well, then clicking the Create New Layer Comp button. The New Layer Comp dialog box, shown in Figure 17, opens, allowing you to name the layer comp and set parameters.

Using Layer Comps

Multiple layer comps, shown in Figure 18, make it easy to switch back and forth between variations on an image theme. Say, for example, that you want to show a client multiple arrangements of layers. The layer comp is an ideal tool for this.

FIGURE 17

New Layer Comp dialog box

FIGURE 17

New Layer Comp dialog box

Type new comp name here

FIGURE 18

Multiple layer comps in image

FIGURE 18

Multiple layer comps in image

Active layer comp

Layer hidden in active layer comp

Active layer comp

Layer hidden in active layer comp

FIGURE 19

New Group dialog box

FIGURE 19

New Group dialog box

New layer group*

FIGURE 21

Layers added to the All Type layer group

FIGURE 21

Layers added to the All Type layer group

in Nelv

in Nelv

The Coming of Winter

Layer 1

Down-pointing .arrow indicates expanded layer group

.Layer group icon (folder)

. Layers within layer group are indented

Create a layer group

■ New layer group name

■ Color list arrow

FIGURE 20

New layer group on Layers palette

I Layer;

Channels XpathsX ► 1

Pass Through V Opacity: 100% ►

Lock: □ > -f* Q

® T

The Coming of Winter

v *

All Type

»

Layer I

T

Fall in New England f w

|o|

| Wreath V

iQl —I $ '

1. Verify that Layer 1 is active, click the Layers palette list arrow 1 , then click New Group.

The New Group dialog box opens, as shown in Figure 19.

I TIP Photoshop automatically places a new I layer group above the active layer.

2. Type All Type in the Name text box.

3. Click the Color list arrow, click Red, then click OK.

The New Group dialog box closes. Compare your Layers palette to Figure 20.

You used the Layers palette menu to create a layer group, then named and applied a color to it. This new group will contain all the type layers in the image.

Move layers to the layer group

1. Click the Fall in New England type layer on the Layers palette, then drag it on to the All Type layer group.

2. Click the The Coming of Winter type layer, drag it on to the All Type layer group, then compare your Layers palette to Figure 21.

TIP If the Coming of Winter layer is below the Fall in New England layer, move the layers to match Figure 21.

3. Click the triangle V to the left of the layer group icon (folder) to collapse the layer group.

You created a layer group, then moved two layers into that layer group. Creating layer groups is a great organization tool, especially in complex images with many layers.

Rename a layer and adjust opacity

1. Double-click Layer 1, type Gourds, then press [Enter] (Win) or [return] (Mac).

2. Double-click the Opacity text box on the Layers palette, type 75, then press [Enter] (Win) or [return] (Mac).

3. Drag the Gourds layer beneath the Wreath layer, then compare your image to Figure 22.

4. Save your work.

You renamed the new layer, adjusted opacity, and rearranged layers.

Create layer comps

1. Click the Layer Comps tab on the palette well.

2. Click the Create New Layer Comp button

_lJ on the Layer Comps palette.

3. Type Gourds on/Wreath off in the Name text box, as shown in Figure 23, then click OK.

4. Click the Indicates layer visibility button on the Wreath layer.

5. Click the Layer Comps tab on the palette well (if necessary), then click the Update Layer Comp button £ on the Layer Comps palette. Compare your Layer Comps palette to Figure 24.

6. Save your work.

You created a Layer Comp in an existing image.

FIGURE 22

Finished image

FIGURE 22

Finished image

Renamed layer

Lower opacity Gourds hidden allows pixels on behind wreath lower layers to show through

Lower opacity Gourds hidden allows pixels on behind wreath lower layers to show through

Renamed layer

FIGURE 23

New Layer Comp dialog box

New Layer Comp name

FIGURE 24

Layer Comps palette

FIGURE 23

New Layer Comp dialog box

New Layer Comp

FIGURE 24

Layer Comps palette

Active Layer Comp

Create New Layer Comp Delete Layer Comp

Active Layer Comp

Create New Layer Comp Delete Layer Comp y \

Apply Previous Apply Next Update

Selected Layer Selected Layer Layer

Comp Comp Comp

FIGURE 25

Save As dialog box

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MyRecrt ^PSf'i.gtd teuMrti ■Jpsz-i^j.sd p5| "5 P5

^PS 2-3-jwi "JBMIHI

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M)| Coiroufti

Sm>-.

QAtaCopy r

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Select check box to create a copy of the current file

•The word "copy" is added to filename

Flattened image contains one layer

Flattened image contains one layer

Flatten an image

FIGURE 26

Flattened image layer

1. Click File on the menu bar, then click Save As.

2. Click the As a Copy check box to add a checkmark, then compare your dialog box to Figure 25.

TIP If "copy" does not display in the File name text box, click this text box and type copy to add it to the name.

3. Click Save.

Photoshop saves and closes a copy of the file containing all the layers and effects.

4. Click Layer on the menu bar, then click Flatten Image.

5. Click OK in the warning box, if necessary, then save your work.

6. Compare your Layers palette to Figure 26.

7. Close all open images, then exit Photoshop. You saved the file as a copy, and then flattened the image. The image now has a single layer.

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SKILLS REFERENCE

Power User Shortcuts to do this: use this method:

Adjust layer opacity

Click Opacity list arrow on Layers palette, drag opacity slider or

Double-click Opacity text box, type a percentage

Change measurements

Right-click (Win) or [Ctrl]-click (Mac) ruler

Color a layer

Layers palette list arrow, Layer Properties, Color list arrow

Create a layer comp

Click Layer Comps tab, _jJ

Create a layer group

► , New Group

Delete a layer

9

Defringe a selection

Layer > Matting > Defringe

to do this:

use this method:

Flatten an image

Layer > Flatten Image

Move Tool

orV

New Background layer from existing layer

Layer > New > Background From Layer

New layer

Sil

Rename a layer

Double-click layer name, type new name

Select color range

Select > Color Range

Show/Hide Rulers

View > Rulers [Ctrl][R] (Win) [X][R] (Mac)

Update a layer comp

0

Key: Menu items are indicated by > between the menu name and its command. Blue bold letters are shortcuts for selecting tools on the toolbox.

CHAPTER SUMMARY

In this chapter, you learned how make extensive use of the Layers palette, using layers to modify an image. You worked with Background layers and learned how to add and delete layers. You used a color range to make a selection. You created a selection in one image, dragged it into another image, then changed its appearance. You used layer groups and assigned colors to layer thumbnails.

What You Have Learned:

• How to change layer types.

• How to use commands on the Layers palette.

• How to create a selection.

• How to organize layers within the Layers palette.

Key Terms

Flattening Merges all visible layers into a single Background layer and discards all hidden layers.

Layer comp Variation on the arrangement and visibility of existing layers within an image that can be used to make your work more organized.

Layer group Allows you to organize your layers on the Layers palette.

Layer thumbnail Appears to the left of the layer name and contains a miniature picture of the layer's content.

Marquee Area of an image that you want to edit or move to another image and is surrounded by a dashed line.

Opacity Ability to see through a layer so that layers beneath it are visible.

Selection Portion of an image that can be dragged within an image, or to another image.

chapter

SELECTIONS

1. Make a selection using shapes.

2. Modify a marquee.

3. Select using color and modify a selection.

4. Add a vignette effect to a selection.

chapter

SELECTIONS

Combining Images

Most Photoshop images are created using a technique called compositing—combining images from different sources. These sources include other Photoshop images, royalty-free images, pictures taken from digital cameras, and scanned artwork. How you get all that artwork into your Photoshop images is an art unto itself. You can include additional images by using tools on the toolbox and menu commands. And to work with all these images, you need to know how to select them—or exactly the parts you want to work with.

Understanding Selection Tools

The two basic methods you can use to make selections are using a tool or using color. You can use three freeform tools to create your own unique selections, four fixed area tools to create circular or rectangular selections, and a wand tool to make selections using color. In addition, you can use menu commands to increase or decrease selections that you made with these tools, or you can make selections based on color.

Understanding Which Selection Tool to Use

With so many tools available, how do you know which one to use? After you know the different selection options, you'll learn how to look at images and evaluate selection opportunities. With experience, you'll learn how to identify edges that can be used to isolate imagery, and how to spot colors that can be used to isolate a specific object.

Combining Imagery

After you decide on an object that you want to place in a Photoshop image, you can add the object by cutting, copying, and pasting, dragging and dropping objects using the Move Tool, and using the Clipboard, the temporary storage area provided by your operating system.

Tools You'll Use

Rectangular— Marquee Tool

Magnetic-— Lasso Tool

Healing' Brush Tool

■ r 1 Rectangular Marquee Tool M

T , __ ."""^i Elliptical Marquee Tool M

Marquee Tools ---

c.-i Single Row Marquee Tool I! Single Column Marquee Tool

Lasso Tool L

M Polygonal Lasso Too! L

All Ctrl+A Deselect Ctrl+D

Reselect Shift+Ctrl+D Inverse Shift+Ctrh-l

All Layers Alt+Ctrl+A Deselect Layers Similar Layers

Color Range...

Feather.., Alt+Ctrl+D

| Modify ► |

Border,,. Smooth,., Expand,.. Contract,..

Grow Similar

Transform Selection

Load Selection, ,, Save Selection.,.

Photoshop Secrets

Photoshop Secrets

Are You Frustrated Because Your Graphics Are Not Looking Professional? Have You Been Slaving Over Your Projects, But Find Yourself Not Getting What You Want From Your Generic Graphic Software? Well, youre about to learn some of the secrets and tips to enhance your images, photos and other projects that you are trying to create and make look professional.

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