Vivid Light and Linear Light Blending Modes
Using the Vivid Light or Linear Light blending modes on the gray layer lightens or darkens the image underneath, depending on the layer's gray values. Pixels that are lighter than 50% gray lighten the image underneath, pixels that are darker than 50% gray darken the image, and pixels that remain 50% gray leave the image untouched. The difference between the two blending modes is that Vivid Light increases or decreases the contrast of the "dodged" area on the image, whereas Linear Light increases or decreases the lightness of that dodged area.
Experiment with these blending modes to determine which one works best for you. The lighthouses in the images below show the subtle difference between the two blending modes.
Using the Dodge Tool on the Image Layer
If you look at the options bar for the Dodge Tool, you'll see that additional settings are available. However, to use these settings, you'll need to use the Dodge Tool directly on the image layer. Since this will alter the image permanently, it's a good idea to duplicate the photo first so that you have a backup.
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